TED日本語 - ジョルジェット・ムルヘア: 孤児院の悲劇

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TED日本語 - ジョルジェット・ムルヘア: 孤児院の悲劇

TED Talks

孤児院の悲劇
The tragedy of orphanages
ジョルジェット・ムルヘア
Georgette Mulheir

内容

孤児院は多大な費用がかかる上、子どもの心と体に取り返しのつかないダメージを与える可能性があります。にもかかわらず、なぜこれほど多く存在するのでしょうか?ジョルジェット・ムルヘアは孤児院での悲劇を語ることを通して、支援が必要な子どもたちを別の方法で救い、孤児院に頼ることをやめるよう強く訴えます。

Script

Across Europe and Central Asia, approximately one million children live in large residential institutions, usually known as orphanages. Most people imagine orphanages as a benign environment that care for children. Others know more about the living conditions there, but still think they're a necessary evil. After all, where else would we put all of those children who don't have any parents?

But 60 years of research has demonstrated that separating children from their families and placing them in large institutions seriously harms their health and development, and this is particularly true for young babies. As we know, babies are born without their full muscle development, and that includes the brain. During the first three years of life, the brain grows to its full size, with most of that growth taking place in the first six months. The brain develops in response to experience and to stimulation. Every time a young baby learns something new -- to focus its eyes, to mimic a movement or a facial expression, to pick something up, to form a word or to sit up -- new synaptic connections are being built in the brain. New parents are astonished by the rapidity of this learning. They are quite rightly amazed and delighted by their children's cleverness. They communicate their delight to their children, who respond with smiles, and a desire to achieve more and to learn more. This forming of the powerful attachment between child and parent provides the building blocks for physical, social, language, cognitive and psychomotor development. It is the model for all future relationships with friends, with partners and with their own children. It happens so naturally in most families that we don't even notice it. Most of us are unaware of its importance to human development and, by extension, to the development of a healthy society. And it's only when it goes wrong that we start to realize the importance of families to children.

In August,1993, I had my first opportunity to witness on a massive scale the impact on children of institutionalization and the absence of parenting. Those of us who remember the newspaper reports that came out of Romania after the 1989 revolution will recall the horrors of the conditions in some of those institutions. I was asked to help the director of a large institution to help prevent the separation of children from their families. Housing 550 babies, this was Ceausescu's show orphanage, and so I'd been told the conditions were much better. Having worked with lots of young children, I expected the institution to be a riot of noise, but it was as silent as a convent. It was hard to believe there were any children there at all, yet the director showed me into room after room, each containing row upon row of cots, in each of which lay a child staring into space. In a room of 40 newborns, not one of them was crying. Yet I could see soiled nappies, and I could see that some of the children were distressed, but the only noise was a low, continuous moan. The head nurse told me proudly, "You see, our children are very well-behaved." Over the next few days, I began to realize that this quietness was not exceptional. The newly admitted babies would cry for the first few hours, but their demands were not met, and so eventually they learned not to bother. Within a few days, they were listless, lethargic, and staring into space like all the others.

Over the years, many people and news reports have blamed the personnel in the institutions for the harm caused to the children, but often,one member of staff is caring for 10,20, and even 40 children. Hence they have no option but to implement a regimented program. The children must be woken at 7 and fed at 7: 30. At 8, their nappies must be changed, so a staff member may have only 30 minutes to feed 10 or 20 children. If a child soils its nappy at 8: 30, he will have to wait several hours before it can be changed again. The child's daily contact with another human being is reduced to a few hurried minutes of feeding and changing, and otherwise their only stimulation is the ceiling, the walls or the bars of their cots.

Since my first visit to Ceausescu's institution, I've seen hundreds of such places across 18 countries, from the Czech Republic to Sudan. Across all of these diverse lands and cultures, the institutions, and the child's journey through them, is depressingly similar. Lack of stimulation often leads to self-stimulating behaviors like hand-flapping, rocking back and forth, or aggression, and in some institutions, psychiatric drugs are used to control the behavior of these children, whilst in others, children are tied up to prevent them from harming themselves or others. These children are quickly labeled as having disabilities and transferred to another institution for children with disabilities. Most of these children will never leave the institution again. For those without disabilities, at age three, they're transferred to another institution, and at age seven, to yet another. Segregated according to age and gender, they are arbitrarily separated from their siblings, often without even a chance to say goodbye. There's rarely enough to eat. They are often hungry. The older children bully the little ones. They learn to survive. They learn to defend themselves, or they go under.

When they leave the institution, they find it really difficult to cope and to integrate into society. In Moldova, young women raised in institutions are 10 times more likely to be trafficked than their peers, and a Russian study found that two years after leaving institutions, young adults,20 percent of them had a criminal record,14 percent were involved in prostitution, and 10 percent had taken their own lives.

But why are there so many orphans in Europe when there hasn't been a great deal of war or disaster in recent years? In fact, more than 95 percent of these children have living parents, and societies tend to blame these parents for abandoning these children, but research shows that most parents want their children, and that the primary drivers behind institutionalization are poverty, disability and ethnicity. Many countries have not developed inclusive schools, and so even children with a very mild disability are sent away to a residential special school, at age six or seven. The institution may be hundreds of miles away from the family home. If the family's poor, they find it difficult to visit, and gradually the relationship breaks down. Behind each of the million children in institutions, there is usually a story of parents who are desperate and feel they've run out of options, like Natalia in Moldova, who only had enough money to feed her baby, and so had to send her older son to the institution; or Desi, in Bulgaria, who looked after her four children at home until her husband died, but then she had to go out to work full time, and with no support, felt she had no option but to place a child with disabilities in an institution; or the countless young girls too terrified to tell their parents they're pregnant, who leave their babies in a hospital; or the new parents, the young couple who have just found out that their firstborn child has a disability, and instead of being provided with positive messages about their child's potential, are told by the doctors, "Forget her, leave her in the institution, go home and make a healthy one."

This state of affairs is neither necessary nor is it inevitable. Every child has the right to a family, deserves and needs a family, and children are amazingly resilient. We find that if we get them out of institutions and into loving families early on, they recover their developmental delays, and go on to lead normal, happy lives. It's also much cheaper to provide support to families than it is to provide institutions. One study suggests that a family support service costs 10 percent of an institutional placement, whilst good quality foster care costs usually about 30 percent. If we spend less on these children but on the right services, we can take the savings and reinvest them in high quality residential care for those few children with extremely complex needs.

Across Europe, a movement is growing to shift the focus and transfer the resources from large institutions that provide poor quality care to community-based services that protect children from harm and allow them to develop to their full potential. When I first started to work in Romania nearly 20 years ago, there were 200,000 children living in institutions, and more entering every day. Now, there are less than 10,000, and family support services are provided across the country. In Moldova, despite extreme poverty and the terrible effects of the global financial crisis, the numbers of children in institutions has reduced by more than 50 percent in the last five years, and the resources are being redistributed to family support services and inclusive schools. Many countries have developed national action plans for change. The European Commission and other major donors are finding ways to divert money from institutions towards family support, empowering communities to look after their own children.

But there is still much to be done to end the systematic institutionalization of children. Awareness-raising is required at every level of society. People need to know the harm that institutions cause to children, and the better alternatives that exist. If we know people who are planning to support orphanages, we should convince them to support family services instead.

Together, this is the one form of child abuse that we could eradicate in our lifetime.

Thank you. (Applause)

(Applause)

ヨーロッパと中央アジアでは およそ100万人の子ども達が 大規模な居住型施設 ―孤児院で 暮らします 孤児院と聞くと愛情あふれる温かな環境を 思い浮かべる人も多く 孤児院の実態をわかっている人ですら 必要悪だと考えています 両親のいない子どもをそんなにたくさん 収容できる場所は他にないからです

しかし 60年に渡る研究で明らかになったのは 子どもを家族から引き離し 巨大な施設に入れることで 健康や発達が損なわれるという事実です 生後間もない赤ちゃんでは特に顕著です 赤ちゃんは 筋肉も脳も未発達の状態で 生まれてきます 脳は 3才までに成長を完了しますが 成長過程の大部分は 生後6か月までに起ります 脳は経験と刺激に応じて発達します 赤ちゃんが新しい事を学ぶたび たとえば ― 目の焦点を合わせる 動きや表情をまねる何かを手に取る 単語を話す お座りするそういった事を学ぶたびに 新しいシナプスの結合が脳で形成されます 親になると 子どもの学習の速さに驚きます 親が子ども達の能力に感心したり 喜んだりするのは当然です 親は喜びを子どもに伝え 子どもは笑顔と もっとやりたい もっと学びたいという希望で応えます 親子間に愛情が芽生えることで 身体的 社会的 ― 言語 認知 精神運動面の発達の基礎ができます 親子関係は 将来の人間関係 つまり友人や パートナーや我が子との関係の基礎になります ほとんどの家庭で関係は自然にできあがり― 意識されません 親子関係が人間の発達や 健全な社会の発展に重要だと気づきにくいのです 関係に問題が生じて はじめて ― 子どもにとって家庭が重要だとわかるのです

1993年の8月に私が初めて目にしたのは 子どもが施設に収容され十分に世話されないため 大きな影響を受けている様子でした 1989年の革命後の ルーマニアでの新聞報道が記憶にある方は 施設の劣悪な状況を思い出せるでしょう 私は依頼されて大規模施設の所長を援助し 子どもを家族と別れさせない活動をしました 550人の赤ちゃんを収容するチャウシェスクのモデル孤児院だったので 状況は他より ずっと良いと聞かされていました 私は小さい子どもがいる現場で働いてきたので 施設は騒々しいだろうと予想していました ところが修道院のように静かです 子どもがいるとはとても思えないのに 所長が案内してくれるどの部屋にも 無数のベッドが並んでいます 子どもがベッドに横たわりぼんやりと宙を眺めています 40人の新生児がいる部屋でも泣き声は聞こえません おむつが汚れている様子や むずかる様子は見ましたが 聞こえるのは子ども達が力なく発するうめき声だけ 保育士長が誇らしげに言いました 「子ども達は とてもお行儀がいいでしょう」 その後 数日でわかりました 静かなのは そこだけではないのです 赤ちゃんが入所すると最初の数時間は泣きます でも欲求が満たされないとわかると 泣かなくなるのです赤ちゃんは数日で 無気力 無関心で宙を眺めるだけになります どの子も同じです

長年 多くの人や新聞報道が 施設の職員を批判してきました 彼らが子どもに害を与えているというのです でも職員1人で10?20人時には40人の子どもを世話するのです だから決められた計画を実施するのが精一杯です 子どもを7時に起こし7時30分に食事を与えます 8時にはおむつを替えるので 担当する10?20人に食事を与える時間はわずか30分です 子どもが8時30分におむつを汚してしまうと 取り替えてもらうまでに数時間待たねばなりません 子どもが他の人間と触れ合う時間は 食事とおむつ交換の時だけ1日わずか数分に限られ それ以外の刺激と言えば 天井と壁とベッドの柵だけなのです

初めてチャウシェスクの施設を訪れてから チェコ共和国やスーダンをはじめ 18か国で 数百か所の施設を見てきました 土地や文化が多様であっても 施設や そこでの子どもの暮らしは 憂鬱になるほどよく似ています 外からの刺激が少ないため自己刺激行動 ― 手をヒラヒラさせたり前後に揺れたり 攻撃的になる様子が見られます施設によっては そんな行動を 向精神薬で制御したり 自分や他者を傷つけないように 縛ったりするのです こんな子どもは「障害者」として 障害児用の施設に送られます 一度 施設に入ると出所する事はまれです 障害のない子どもでも3才になると 別の施設に送られさらに7才で 次の施設に送られます年令と性別で分けられるので 兄弟姉妹ですら離ればなれになります 別れを言う間さえ与えられないことも 食べ物は不十分で飢えることもしばしばです 年上の子が小さい子をいじめます 子ども達は生きる術として身を守るために屈服します

施設を出ると社会に適応する ― 大変さを知ります モルドバでは施設で育った女性は そうでない女性の10倍の確率で人身売買の対象になります ロシアでの調査では施設を出て2年後までに 20%が犯罪を犯し 14%が売春に関わり 10%が自殺するそうです

近年 戦争や災害のないヨーロッパに 何故これほど多くの孤児がいるのでしょうか? 実は孤児の親の95%以上は生きています 親は自分の子を捨てたと 世間から非難されますが調査によれば ほとんどの親は子どもと暮らしたいのです 子どもを施設に送る 主な理由は 貧困 障害 民族的な問題です 多くの国では障害児を受け入れる学校がなく 障害の程度が軽くても 6~7才で 寄宿制の 特別支援学校に送られます 施設は自宅から何百キロも離れている場合もあり 貧しい家庭なら訪問もままならないため 親子関係が次第に壊れてしまいます 施設にいる どの子にも 必死なのに万策尽きた親がいるのです モルドバのナタリアもそんな親の一人です 赤ちゃんを養うギリギリのお金しかなく 上の息子を施設に送らねばなりませんでした ブルガリアのデシには子どもが4人いましたが 夫が亡くなり フルタイムで 働かねばならなくなりました 支援もなく障害のある子どもを 施設に入れるしかありませんでした また無数の若い女性が親に妊娠を知られることを恐れて 病院に赤ん坊を置き去りにします 親になったばかりのカップルが 初めての子どもに障害があるとわかっても 医者は子どもの可能性について 前向きなことを言ってはくれません 「この子の事は忘れて施設に入れなさい 家に帰って健康な子を作ればいい」

でも こんな事は避けられます 全ての子どもには家族をもつ権利があり 家族が必要です子どもには素晴らしい回復力があり 早い段階で施設から出して 愛情豊かな家庭を与えれば発達の遅れを取り戻し 普通の幸せな暮らしを送れます さらに家族に対する支援は 施設を供給するより低コストです 調査によれば家族支援サービスのコストは 施設に送るコストのわずか1割です また優れた養子システムでも 3割ほどしかかかりません 適切な支援を提供しつつコストを下げることで 重度の障害をもつ子ども達向けの 質の高い居住型ケアに資金を分配できるのです

ヨーロッパではケアの質が低い― 大規模施設よりも子どもを保護し 子どもの能力を伸ばせる地域型サービスを発展させようと 関心がよせられ資金も移行しています ルーマニアでは私が最初に働いた20年ほど前には 施設に20万人の子どもがいて 数は日に日に増加していました ところが現在では1万人を割り込み 国中で家族支援サービスが提供されています モルドバでは極度の貧困と世界金融危機の 影響にもかかわらず入所者数は この5年間で50%以上 減っています その結果 資金が家族支援サービスや 「インクルーシブ教育」に割り振られているのです 多くの国が変革のための行動計画を策定しています 欧州委員会や他の主な支援団体は 施設向けだった資金を 家族支援や地域の子育て支援に 向けはじめています

それでも子どもを施設に入れさせないために すべきことは 山ほどあります 社会のあらゆる層で意識を高める活動が必要です 施設は子どもに害を与えること ― そして 代替案があることを知らせなければなりません 孤児院を支援しようとする人がいたら 代わりに家族支援サービスを支援するよう説得すべきです

孤児院は虐待の一種で 私たちの世代でなくせるはずです

ありがとうございます (拍手)

(拍手)

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