TED日本語 - ジェフリー・ブラウン牧師: どのようにボストンの若者の暴力を79%削減したのか


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TED日本語 - ジェフリー・ブラウン牧師: どのようにボストンの若者の暴力を79%削減したのか

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How we cut youth violence in Boston by 79 percent
Jeffrey Brown




I've learned some of my most important life lessons from drug dealers and gang members and prostitutes, and I've had some of my most profound theological conversations not in the hallowed halls of a seminary but on a street corner on a Friday night, at 1 a.m.

That's a little unusual, since I am a Baptist minister, seminary-trained, and pastored a church for over 20 years, but it's true. It came as a part of my participation in a public safety crime reduction strategy that saw a 79 percent reduction in violent crime over an eight-year period in a major city.

But I didn't start out wanting to be a part of somebody's crime reduction strategy. I was 25, had my first church. If you would have asked me what my ambition was, I would have told you I wanted to be a megachurch pastor. I wanted a 15-,20, 000-member church. I wanted my own television ministry. I wanted my own clothing line. (Laughter) I wanted to be your long distance carrier. You know, the whole nine yards. (Laughter)

After about a year of pastoring, my membership went up about 20 members. So megachurchdom was way down the road. But seriously, if you'd have said, "What is your ambition?" I would have said just to be a good pastor, to be able to be with people through all the passages of life, to preach messages that would have an everyday meaning for folks, and in the African-American tradition, to be able to represent the community that I serve.

But there was something else that was happening in my city and in the entire metro area, and in most metro areas in the United States, and that was the homicide rate started to rise precipitously. And there were young people who were killing each other for reasons that I thought were very trivial, like bumping into someone in a high school hallway, and then after school, shooting the person. Someone with the wrong color shirt on, on the wrong street corner at the wrong time. And something needed to be done about that. It got to the point where it started to change the character of the city. You could go to any housing project, for example, like the one that was down the street from my church, and you would walk in, and it would be like a ghost town, because the parents wouldn't allow their kids to come out and play, even in the summertime, because of the violence. You would listen in the neighborhoods on any given night, and to the untrained ear, it sounded like fireworks, but it was gunfire. You'd hear it almost every night, when you were cooking dinner, telling your child a bedtime story, or just watching TV. And you can go to any emergency room at any hospital, and you would see lying on gurneys young black and Latino men shot and dying. And I was doing funerals, but not of the venerated matriarchs and patriarchs who'd lived a long life and there's a lot to say. I was doing funerals of 18-year-olds, 17-year-olds, and 16-year-olds, and I was standing in a church or at a funeral home struggling to say something that would make some meaningful impact. And so while my colleagues were building these cathedrals great and tall and buying property outside of the city and moving their congregations out so that they could create or recreate their cities of God, the social structures in the inner cities were sagging under the weight of all of this violence.

And so I stayed, because somebody needed to do something, and so I had looked at what I had and moved on that. I started to preach decrying the violence in the community. And I started to look at the programming in my church, and I started to build programs that would catch the at-risk youth, those who were on the fence to the violence. I even tried to be innovative in my preaching. You all have heard of rap music, right? Rap music? I even tried to rap sermon one time. It didn't work, but at least I tried it. I'll never forget the young person who came to me after that sermon. He waited until everybody was gone, and he said, "Rev, rap sermon, huh?" And I was like, "Yeah, what do you think?" And he said, "Don't do that again, Rev." (Laughter)

But I preached and I built these programs, and I thought maybe if my colleagues did the same that it would make a difference. But the violence just careened out of control, and people who were not involved in the violence were getting shot and killed: somebody going to buy a pack of cigarettes at a convenience store, or someone who was sitting at a bus stop just waiting for a bus, or kids who were playing in the park, oblivious to the violence on the other side of the park, but it coming and visiting them. Things were out of control, and I didn't know what to do, and then something happened that changed everything for me. It was a kid by the name of Jesse McKie, walking home with his friend Rigoberto Carrion to the housing project down the street from my church. They met up with a group of youth who were from a gang in Dorchester, and they were killed. But as Jesse was running from the scene mortally wounded, he was running in the direction of my church, and he died some 100,150 yards away. If he would have gotten to the church, it wouldn't have made a difference, because the lights were out; nobody was home. And I took that as a sign. When they caught some of the youth that had done this deed, to my surprise, they were around my age, but the gulf that was between us was vast. It was like we were in two completely different worlds.

And so as I contemplated all of this and looked at what was happening, I suddenly realized that there was a paradox that was emerging inside of me, and the paradox was this: in all of those sermons that I preached decrying the violence, I was also talking about building community, but I suddenly realized that there was a certain segment of the population that I was not including in my definition of community. And so the paradox was this: If I really wanted the community that I was preaching for, I needed to reach out and embrace this group that I had cut out of my definition. Which meant not about building programs to catch those who were on the fences of violence, but to reach out and to embrace those who were committing the acts of violence, the gang bangers, the drug dealers.

As soon as I came to that realization, a quick question came to my mind. Why me? I mean, isn't this a law enforcement issue? This is why we have the police, right? As soon as the question, "Why me?" came, the answer came just as quickly: Why me? Because I'm the one who can't sleep at night thinking about it. Because I'm the one looking around saying somebody needs to do something about this, and I'm starting to realize that that someone is me. I mean, isn't that how movements start anyway? They don't start with a grand convention and people coming together and then walking in lockstep with a statement. But it starts with just a few, or maybe just one.

It started with me that way, and so I decided to figure out the culture of violence in which these young people who were committing them existed, and I started to volunteer at the high school. After about two weeks of volunteering at the high school, I realized that the youth that I was trying to reach, they weren't going to high school. I started to walk in the community, and it didn't take a rocket scientist to realize that they weren't out during the day. So I started to walk the streets at night, late at night, going into the parks where they were, building the relationship that was necessary.

A tragedy happened in Boston that brought a number of clergy together, and there was a small cadre of us who came to the realization that we had to come out of the four walls of our sanctuary and meet the youth where they were, and not try to figure out how to bring them in. And so we decided to walk together, and we would get together in one of the most dangerous neighborhoods in the city on a Friday night and on a Saturday night at 10 p.m., and we would walk until 2 or 3 in the morning. I imagine we were quite the anomaly when we first started walking. I mean, we weren't drug dealers. We weren't drug customers. We weren't the police. Some of us would have collars on. It was probably a really odd thing. But they started speaking to us after a while, and what we found out is that while we were walking, they were watching us, and they wanted to make sure of a couple of things: that number one, we were going to be consistent in our behavior, that we would keep coming out there; and then secondly, they had wanted to make sure that we weren't out there to exploit them. Because there was always somebody who would say, "We're going to take back the streets," but they would always seem to have a television camera with them, or a reporter, and they would enhance their own reputation to the detriment of those on the streets. So when they saw that we had none of that, they decided to talk to us. And then we did an amazing thing for preachers. We decided to listen and not preach. Come on, give it up for me. (Laughter) (Applause) All right, come on, you're cutting into my time now, okay? (Laughter) But it was amazing. We said to them, "We don't know our own communities after 9 p.m. at night, between 9 p.m. and 5 a.m., but you do. You are the subject matter experts, if you will, of that period of time. So talk to us. Teach us. Help us to see what we're not seeing. Help us to understand what we're not understanding." And they were all too happy to do that, and we got an idea of what life on the streets was all about, very different than what you see on the 11 o'clock news, very different than what is portrayed in popular media and even social media.

And as we were talking with them, a number of myths were dispelled about them with us. And one of the biggest myths was that these kids were cold and heartless and uncharacteristically bold in their violence. What we found out was the exact opposite. Most of the young people who were out there on the streets are just trying to make it on the streets. And we also found out that some of the most intelligent and creative and magnificent and wise people that we've ever met were on the street, engaged in a struggle. And I know some of them call it survival, but I call them overcomers, because when you're in the conditions that they're in, to be able to live every day is an accomplishment of overcoming. And as a result of that, we said to them, "How do you see this church, how do you see this institution helping this situation?" And we developed a plan in conversation with these youths. We stopped looking at them as the problem to be solved, and we started looking at them as partners, as assets, as co-laborers in the struggle to reduce violence in the community. Imagine developing a plan, you have one minister at one table and a heroin dealer at the other table, coming up with a way in which the church can help the entire community.

The Boston Miracle was about bringing people together. We had other partners. We had law enforcement partners. We had police officers. It wasn't the entire force, because there were still some who still had that lock-'em-up mentality, but there were other cops who saw the honor in partnering with the community, who saw the responsibility from themselves to be able to work as partners with community leaders and faith leaders in order to reduce violence in the community. Same with probation officers, same with judges, same with folks who were up that law enforcement chain, because they realized, like we did, that we'll never arrest ourselves out of this situation, that there will not be enough prosecutions made, and you can not fill these jails up enough in order to alleviate the problem. I helped to start an organization 20 years ago, a faith-based organization, to deal with this issue. I left it about four years ago and started working in cities across the United States,19 in total, and what I found out was that in those cities, there was always this component of community leaders who put their heads down and their nose to the grindstone, who checked their egos at the door and saw the whole as greater than the sum of its parts, and came together and found ways to work with youth out on the streets, that the solution is not more cops, but the solution is mining the assets that are there in the community, to have a strong community component in the collaboration around violence reduction.

Now, there is a movement in the United States of young people who I am very proud of who are dealing with the structural issues that need to change if we're going to be a better society. But there is this political ploy to try to pit police brutality and police misconduct against black-on-black violence. But it's a fiction. It's all connected. When you think about decades of failed housing policies and poor educational structures, when you think about persistent unemployment and underemployment in a community, when you think about poor healthcare, and then you throw drugs into the mix and duffel bags full of guns, little wonder that you would see this culture of violence emerge. And then the response that comes from the state is more cops and more suppression of hot spots. It's all connected, and one of the wonderful things that we've been able to do is to be able to show the value of partnering together -- community, law enforcement, private sector, the city -- in order to reduce violence. You have to value that community component.

I believe that we can end the era of violence in our cities. I believe that it is possible and that people are doing it even now. But I need your help. It can't just come from folks who are burning themselves out in the community. They need support. They need help. Go back to your city. Find those people. "You need some help? I'll help you out." Find those people. They're there. Bring them together with law enforcement, the private sector, and the city, with the one aim of reducing violence, but make sure that that community component is strong. Because the old adage that comes from Burundi is right: that you do for me, without me, you do to me.

God bless you. Thank you.


私は最も大切な人生の教訓を 麻薬ディーラーや チンピラや 売春婦から学びました そして最も深遠なる神学的な会話を 神聖な神学校のホールではなく 金曜 深夜1時の 街角で行ってきました

私は神学校を卒業した バプテスト派の牧師で 教会を任されて20年以上ですから 少し変わっていると思うでしょうが 本当の話です 私は治安維持や犯罪削減に携わり 大都市で8年間で 凶悪犯罪が 79%減少するのを見てきました

でも私は誰かのやり方で 犯罪削減に携わりたいわけでは なかったのです 私は25才で 最初の教会を任されました 当時の私に夢を聞くなら 大きな教会の牧師になりたいと 答えたでしょう 信者数が1万5千人とか2万人の 教会が欲しかった テレビ中継される 牧師になりたかった 礼拝用の服もたくさん欲しかった (笑) 遠距離の信者も集めたかった 何もかも欲しかったのです (笑)

牧師になって1年が過ぎた頃 会員は20人くらいに増えましたが 大教会は遥か彼方でした でも もし真摯な夢を聞かれたなら 立派な牧師になることでした 人々のあらゆる人生の局面に寄り添い 日常生活の意味を説き アフリカ系アメリカ人の伝統に則って 私の管轄区の代表に なりたかったのです

一方 私の街や大都市圏 そして アメリカの大半の主要都市で ある事態が起こりつつありました 殺人率が急激に上昇し始めたのです 些細としか思えないことで 若者同士が殺し合うのです 例えば 高校の廊下で ぶつかった生徒を 放課後撃つのです 最悪のタイミングで 危険な街角に 着てはいけない色のシャツを着て 立っていたといって撃つのです なんとかする必要がありました 都市の雰囲気が 変わり始めていたのです 公営住宅に行ってみると ― 私の教会から 少し行ったところにもありますが ― 足を踏み入れると ゴーストタウンのようなのです 暴力がはびこっているせいで 夏であっても 親が子供を外で 遊ばせないからです 夜近所の音に耳を澄ませば 慣れていないと 花火の音に聞こえるかもしれませんが 銃声がするのです ほぼ毎晩のように銃声がします 夕食を作っている時 寝る前に子供に本を読んであげる時 テレビを見ている時に聞こえてくるのです そして病院の緊急治療室に行けば 若い黒人やラテン系の男性が 撃たれて瀕死の状態で 担架に横たわっている光景を 目にします 私は多くの葬儀を行いましたが 弔辞にも困らないような 長寿を全うした 年配の方の葬儀ではないのです 執り行ったのは 18歳や 17歳 ― 16歳の子供たちの葬儀で 教会や葬儀場に立って 心に響くことを言うには 大変苦労しました 私の同僚が 高くて立派な大聖堂を建てたり 郊外に不動産を買ったり 集会の場所を変えたりして 「神の都市」を作ろうとしていた頃 市街地の社会構造は この暴力の重圧に 押しつぶされていました

だから私は留まりました 誰かがやらねばと思ったからです 自分が行ってきた使命を 考えてみました 私は地域社会の暴力を非難する 説教を始めました 自分の教会で礼拝を 企画することから始めました 暴力を ただ傍観し 非行に走る恐れのある子供を 惹きつけようとしたのです 自分の説教のスタイルを 変えてもみました 皆さん ラップをご存じですよね? ラップですよ? 一度ラップで説教をやりました 失敗でしたが とにかくやったのです 説教後に若者が私の所にやってきたのが 忘れられません 彼は皆が居なくなるまで 待って言いました 「牧師さん ラップで説教かよ?」 「どうだった?」と聞くと 「二度とするな」と言われました (笑)

それでも私は説教をし これらの企画を作り もし同僚が同じことをしたのなら 結果は違っていたかと悩みました 手に負えないほど 暴力の勢いが強く 暴力とは直接関わりのない人々が 撃たれたり殺されたりしました コンビニでタバコを 一箱買おうとする人や バスを待つため 停留所に座っている人 公園の片隅で起こった暴力に 気付かずに遊んでいた子供たちです でも暴力が彼らの世界に入り込んでくるのです 事態は制御不能で 自分のすべきことが 分かりませんでしたが 私の全てを変えるようなことが 起こりました ジェシー・ミッキーという子どもが 友達のリゴベルト・キャリーオンと一緒に 私の教会の先にある 公営住宅に歩いて帰る途中 ドーチェスターの チンピラのグループと出会い 殺されたのです ジェシーは致命傷を負った現場から 私の教会の方向へ逃げましたが あと100mか150mの所で 息絶えました 教会に逃げ込んでいても 何も変わらなかったでしょう 明かりが消え 誰もいなかったからです 私はそれを神の啓示と捉えました 犯人のチンピラを捕まえてみると なんと 私と同世代だったのです しかし 私たちの隔たりは大きく あたかも全く違う二つの世界で 暮らしているかのようでした

私はこのことを深く考え 何が起こったのか調べました そして突然 私の内なる矛盾に 気付いたのです その矛盾とは 説教では 暴力を非難し 地域社会の再建を話してきたのに 私の地域社会の定義には 含まれていない階層の人々がいることに 突然 気付いたのです つまり こういうことです 本当に私が 自分の管轄区が欲しいなら 私の定義から外れた人々に 手を差し伸べ 受け入れる必要があったのです 暴力を傍観している人たちを 惹きつける企画を作るだけでなく 暴力に関わっている人たち ― 暴力団員や麻薬ディーラーに 手を差し伸べ 受け入れるのです

それに気付いて すぐに疑問が頭をもたげました 「どうして私が?」 警察の問題ではないかと 思ったのです そのために警察がいるのですよね? でも 疑問がわいた直後に 答えも見つかりました 暴力のことを考えだすと 夜も眠れないのは 私だからです 誰かが何とかする必要があると 思っているのは 私だからです そして その誰かこそ 自分だと気付きました 運動とは こうして始まるものでしょう? 初めから大きな集会に沢山 人が集まって 横断幕を掲げて 行進するわけではないのです 最初は ほんの数人 一人だけかも知れません

始めの頃はそんな具合でした 私は若者が関与する暴力文化を 解明することにし 高校でボランティアを始めました ボランティアを始めて 2週間が過ぎた頃 探している若者は 高校に行っていないことに 気付きました 私は地域を歩くようになりました 彼らが昼間に外出しないことは 天才じゃなくてもわかります だから 私は深夜の路上を 歩き始めました 彼らのいる公園へ行き 必要な関係を築きました

ボストンで起こった悲劇は 聖職者を団結させました 私を含め数人が悟ったのは 四方を壁に囲まれた教会から出て 若者たちに会いに行く必要が あるということでした 教会に連れて来るのではないのです そこで私たちは 一緒に歩くことにしました その町で最も危険な場所の一つで 金曜日と土曜日の 夜10時に集まって 深夜2時とか3時まで 歩き回りました 歩き始めた最初の頃 自分たちを例外だと思っていました 麻薬ディーラーでも 麻薬の顧客でも 警察でもないからです 牧師の印の白い襟を付けた人もいました 多分とても変だったでしょう しばらくすると 若者たちと会話するようになりました そして気付いたことは 私たちが歩いている間 彼らは 私たちを見て 2つのことを確かめていたのです その1:そこに来た私たちの態度に 一貫性があるのか その2:若者を利用するために 来たわけではないこと というのも 「安全な通りを取り戻す」と 主張する人間はいつでも テレビカメラやレポーターと 一緒にいるようだったからです 自分の名声を高めるために 路上の若者を利用しているのです だから私たちが 誰も連れていないのを見て 話しかけてきたのです そして私たちは 牧師としては驚くべき態度に出ました 説教はせず 聞くことにしたのです さあ 拍手してくださいよ (笑)(拍手) 私の時間に 食い込んでますよ (笑) でも 素晴らしかった 彼らに こう話しかけました 「私たちは夜9時以降の地域の様子 ― 夜9時から朝5時までの様子を知らないが 君たちは知っている 君たちは夜の時間帯の エキスパートなんだ だから私たちに教えてほしい 私たちに見えないことが見えるように 理解していないことを 理解できるように手伝ってほしい」 若者は喜んでやってくれました 私たちはストリートでの暮らしが 分かってきました 11時のニュース報道とは全然違うのです 人気メディアやソーシャルメディアの報道とも 全然違うのです

若者たちと話しているうちに 彼らに対する偏見が 消えて行きました ひどい偏見の一つは この子たちは冷たく残酷で 暴力を好むというものです 私たちが見たのは その真逆の姿です 路上にいる若者の大半は そこでうまく生活しようとしています さらに分かったことは ストリートには 私たちが今まで会った中で 最も知的で クリエイティブで 堂々として 賢い若者たちがいて そこで闘っていたのです それをサバイバルと呼ぶ若者もいますが 私は克服だと思います 彼らのような状況に置かれると 日々生きることは 克服することなのです それを受けて 私たちは彼らに尋ねました 「こういう状況を改善するために 教会は何をすればいいと思う?」 私たちは若者との会話を通じて 計画を立てました 若者を問題視することを止め 地域社会の暴力削減運動の パートナーであり 有用な人材であり 仲間として 彼らを見るようになりました 計画を立てるのを 想像してみてください 牧師と麻薬ディーラーが 席を共にして 教会が地域社会全体を 支援する方法を考えるのです

ボストンの奇跡は 人々を団結させました 私たちには他にも協力者がいました 司法関係者がおり 警察官がいました ただ警官全員ではありません 「刑務所送りにすればいい」と 考える人も いましたから でも 地域社会のために協力するのを 名誉だと思う警官もいました 彼らはコミュニティ・リーダーや 信仰指導者と 働くことを責務とみなし 地域社会の暴力削減に 努めてきました 保護観察官も然り 裁判官も然り 司法関連の人々も然り なぜなら私たちが気付いたように この状況から抜け出すには いくら起訴をしても いくら刑務所送りにしても 問題解決に至らないことに 彼らも気付いたのです 私は20年前に 信仰に基づいた団体を この問題を解決するために 立ち上げました 私は4年前に退き アメリカの合計19の都市での 活動を開始しました そして気付いたことは そういう都市には 常に地域の リーダーとなる人がいて 頭を下げながら コツコツ働き エゴは決して持ち込まず 全体の力は 個人の力を足したものより 大きいことを理解し 力を合わせて 路上の若者と 共に活動する方法を見つけていました そして解決策は 警官を増員することではなく 地域の人材を掘り起こして 暴力を削減するために協働する 強力な地域の体制を作ることなのです

アメリカで 私の自慢の若者たちが 構造改革の問題に取組み より良い社会を築こうとしています 一方で 黒人同士の暴力に対して 警察が暴力や職務乱用で 対抗しようとする政治的策略がありますが これは所詮 絵空事です すべてが連鎖しているのですから 数十年に渡って 破綻した住宅政策に 貧弱な教育システム ― 地域における 長期に渡る失業に 不安定な労働条件 ― そして 医療サービスの不足を考えると そんな環境に 麻薬や ダッフルバッグに詰めた銃を 放り込めば こういう暴力文化が現れるのも 全然不思議ではないのです 結果として州の対応は 警官の増員と 危険地域の取り締まり強化になります すべて連鎖しているのです 私たちが行った 素晴らしいことの一つは 暴力削減を目指して 地域社会、警察、企業、市当局が 共に連携することの 価値を示したことです 地域社会の価値を 尊重しなければなりません

私は都市の暴力の時代に 終止符を打てると信じています できると信じているし 人々が 今まさに取り組んでいますが みなさんの支援が必要です 地域社会で 人々は精根尽き果てています あなたの支援や 援助が必要なのです 自分の街に帰ったら そういう人々を見つけてください 「お困りですか?」 「私がお助けします」 人々を見つけるのです 彼らはそこにいます そして彼らが暴力削減という目標の下に 警察、企業、市当局と 連携できるようにしてください 地域に活力を与えてください ブルンジ共和国には古い諺があって まさにその通りなのです 「私のためにと思っていても 私抜きなら 押し付けているだけ」

皆さんに神のご加護を ありがとうございました


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