TED日本語 - テルマ・ゴールデン: 芸術による文化の変革


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TED日本語 - テルマ・ゴールデン: 芸術による文化の変革

TED Talks


How art gives shape to cultural change


Thelma Golden






The brilliant playwright, Adrienne Kennedy, wrote a volume called "People Who Led to My Plays." And if I were to write a volume, it would be called, "Artists Who Have Led My Exhibitions" because my work, in understanding art and in understanding culture, has come by following artists, by looking at what artists mean and what they do and who they are. J.J. from "Good Times," (Applause) significant to many people of course because of "Dy-no-mite," but perhaps more significant as the first, really, black artist on primetime TV. Jean-Michel Basquiat, important to me because [ he was ] the first black artist in real time that showed me the possibility of who and what I was about to enter into.

My overall project is about art -- specifically, about black artists -- very generally about the way in which art can change the way we think about culture and ourselves. My interest is in artists who understand and rewrite history, who think about themselves within the narrative of the larger world of art, but who have created new places for us to see and understand. I'm showing two artists here, Glenn Ligon and Carol Walker,two of many who really form for me the essential questions that I wanted to bring as a curator to the world. I was interested in the idea of why and how I could create a new story, a new narrative in art history and a new narrative in the world. And to do this, I knew that I had to see the way in which artists work, understand the artist's studio as a laboratory, imagine, then, reinventing the museum as a think tank and looking at the exhibition as the ultimate white paper -- asking questions, providing the space to look and to think about answers.

In 1994, when I was a curator at the Whitney Museum, I made an exhibition called Black Male. It looked at the intersection of race and gender in contemporary American art. It sought to express the ways in which art could provide a space for dialogue -- complicated dialogue, dialogue with many, many points of entry -- and how the museum could be the space for this contest of ideas. This exhibition included over 20 artists of various ages and races, but all looking at black masculinity from a very particular point of view. What was significant about this exhibition is the way in which it engaged me in my role as a curator, as a catalyst, for this dialogue. One of the things that happened very distinctly in the course of this exhibition is I was confronted with idea of how powerful images can be and people's understanding of themselves and each other.

I'm showing you two works,one on the right by Leon Golub,one on the left by Robert Colescott. And in the course of the exhibition -- which was contentious, controversial and ultimately, for me, life-changing in my sense of what art could be -- a woman came up to me on the gallery floor to express her concern about the nature of how powerful images could be and how we understood each other. And she pointed to the work on the left to tell me how problematic this image was, as it related, for her, to the idea of how black people had been represented. And she pointed to the image on the right as an example, to me, of the kind of dignity that needed to be portrayed to work against those images in the media. She then assigned these works racial identities, basically saying to me that the work on the right, clearly, was made by a black artist, the work on the left, clearly, by a white artist, when, in effect, that was the opposite case: Bob Colescott, African-American artist; Leon Golub, a white artist. The point of that for me was to say -- in that space, in that moment -- that I really, more than anything, wanted to understand how images could work, how images did work, and how artists provided a space bigger than one that we could imagine in our day-to-day lives to work through these images.

Fast-forward and I end up in Harlem; home for many of black America, very much the psychic heart of the black experience, really the place where the Harlem Renaissance existed. Harlem now, sort of explaining and thinking of itself in this part of the century, looking both backwards and forwards ... I always say Harlem is an interesting community because, unlike many other places, it thinks of itself in the past, present and the future simultaneously; no one speaks of it just in the now. It's always what it was and what it can be. And, in thinking about that, then my second project, the second question I ask is: Can a museum be a catalyst in a community? Can a museum house artists and allow them to be change agents as communities rethink themselves? This is Harlem, actually, on January 20th, thinking about itself in a very wonderful way.

So I work now at The Studio Museum in Harlem, thinking about exhibitions there, thinking about what it means to discover art's possibility. Now, what does this mean to some of you? In some cases, I know that many of you are involved in cross-cultural dialogues, you're involved in ideas of creativity and innovation. Think about the place that artists can play in that -- that is the kind of incubation and advocacy that I work towards, in working with young, black artists. Think about artists, not as content providers, though they can be brilliant at that, but, again, as real catalysts.

The Studio Museum was founded in the late 60s. And I bring this up because it's important to locate this practice in history. To look at 1968, in the incredible historic moment that it is, and think of the arc that has happened since then, to think of the possibilities that we are all privileged to stand in today and imagine that this museum that came out of a moment of great protest and one that was so much about examining the history and the legacy of important African-American artists to the history of art in this country like Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Romare Bearden.

And then, of course, to bring us to today. In 1975, Muhammad Ali gave a lecture at Harvard University. After his lecture, a student got up and said to him, "Give us a poem." And Mohammed Ali said, "Me, we." A profound statement about the individual and the community. The space in which now, in my project of discovery, of thinking about artists, of trying to define what might be black art cultural movement of the 21st century. What that might mean for cultural movements all over this moment, the "me, we" seems incredibly prescient totally important.

To this end, the specific project that has made this possible for me is a series of exhibitions, all titled with an F -- Freestyle, Frequency and Flow -- which have set out to discover and define the young, black artists working in this moment who I feel strongly will continue to work over the next many years. This series of exhibitions was made specifically to try and question the idea of what it would mean now, at this point in history, to see art as a catalyst; what it means now, at this point in history, as we define and redefine culture, black culture specifically in my case, but culture generally. I named this group of artists around an idea, which I put out there called post-black, really meant to define them as artists who came and start their work now, looking back at history but start in this moment, historically.

It is really in this sense of discovery that I have a new set of questions that I'm asking. This new set of questions is: What does it mean, right now, to be African-American in America? What can artwork say about this? Where can a museum exist as the place for us all to have this conversation? Really, most exciting about this is thinking about the energy and the excitement that young artists can bring. Their works for me are about, not always just simply about the aesthetic innovation that their minds imagine, that their visions create and put out there in the world, but more, perhaps, importantly, through the excitement of the community that they create as important voices that would allow us right now to understand our situation, as well as in the future. I am continually amazed by the way in which the subject of race can take itself in many places that we don't imagine it should be. I am always amazed by the way in which artists are willing to do that in their work. It is why I look to art. It's why I ask questions of art. It is why I make exhibitions.

Now, this exhibition, as I said,40 young artists done over the course of eight years, and for me it's about considering the implications. It's considering the implications of what this generation has to say to the rest of us. It's considering what it means for these artists to be both out in the world as their work travels, but in their communities as people who are seeing and thinking about the issues that face us. It's also about thinking about the creative spirit and nurturing it, and imagining, particularly in urban America, about the nurturing of the spirit.

Now, where, perhaps, does this end up right now? For me, it is about re-imagining this cultural discourse in an international context. So the last iteration of this project has been called Flow, with the idea now of creating a real network of artists around the world; really looking, not so much from Harlem and out, but looking across, and Flow looked at artists all born on the continent of Africa. And as many of us think about that continent and think about what if means to us all in the 21st century, I have begun that looking through artists, through artworks, and imagining what they can tell us about the future, what they tell us about our future, and what they create in their sense of offering us this great possibility of watching that continent emerge as part of our bigger dialogue. So, what do I discover

when I look at artworks? What do I think about when I think about art? I feel like the privilege I've had as a curator is not just the discovery of new works, the discovery of exciting works. But, really, it has been what I've discovered about myself and what I can offer in the space of an exhibition, to talk about beauty, to talk about power, to talk about ourselves, and to talk and speak to each other. That's what makes me get up every day and want to think about this generation of black artists and artists around the world.

Thank you. (Applause)

脚本家のエイドリアン ケネディーは 「私の劇の役者達」という 本を書きました 私が本を書くとしたら タイトルはおそらく 「私の展覧会の芸術家達」 私の仕事である 芸術と文化を理解するには 芸術家達に寄り添い その活動の意図や個性に 注目する必要があります ジェイ ジェイの「グッド タイムズ」 (拍手) みなさんには「ダイ ノ マイト」で おなじみかもしれませんが 彼はゴールデン タイムの TVに最初に出演した 黒人アーティストなのです ジャン ミシェル バスキアは リアルタイムで 私に芸術の持つ可能性を 示してくれた 最初の黒人アーティストです

私が主に対象とするのは 黒人アーティストですが 彼らを通じて 芸術がどのように 文化や自分に対する見方を 変える方法を探っています 私が興味を持つのは 歴史を踏まえ 新たにするべく 時代を超えて残る 芸術という世界で 自らを顧みつつ 私達が見て理解すべき 新たな場所を創った人々です 学芸員としてこれから話すことは グレン ライゴンや キャロル ウォーカーの様な 芸術家から思いつきました そもそも私は一体どうしたら 芸術史や世界史の中で 新しい物語を 作り出せるかに 興味がありました そのために私は 芸術家の作品の作り方を見て 彼らの創作現場を 実験室と理解しました そこから考えると 美術館は知識の集積場 そして展覧会は 質問を投げかけ その答えを探し考えるための 白紙の解答用紙なのです

1994年に行った ホイットニー美術館での 「黒人男性」という展覧会は 米国の現代芸術で 人種と性別の交わりを 表現するものでした 展覧会の目的は 芸術表現によって たくさんの争点を持つ 難しいテーマに関する 対話の場を生み出し 美術館でその考えを 競わせることでした この展覧会では 年齢も人種も違う 20人以上の芸術家が 「黒人男性らしさ」を 特定の視点から探りました この展覧会で重要なことは 私が学芸員として そしてつなぎ役として この対話において 果たした役割です 展覧会の最中に 非常にはっきりと 感じたのは 人はイメージに頼って 物事を理解するということです

右がレオン ゴラブ 左がロバート コールスコット この展覧会で 激しい議論を重ねて 芸術の可能性に対する 私の考えは 完全に変わりました 展覧会場で ある女性が 強烈なイメージによって 相手を理解した気になるのを 心配していました 彼女は 左の絵を指して こちらの絵は 今までの 黒人のイメージを描いていて 問題があると思うが 右は メディアで語られてきた イメージに抵抗する 自尊心が感じられる いい作品だと私に言い 自信を持って 作者の人種は 右の作品が 黒人アーティストで 左が白人だと 答えましたが 実際は正反対 ボブは黒人で レオンは白人です その場所で その時に そう言われた私が 知りたくなったのは 伝えたいイメージが 実際どのように伝わるのか 芸術家はどのように 私達が日常からは 想像できない空間を イメージによって創るのかです

私が今いるハーレムは 米国に住む多くの黒人にとって 「黒人らしい」生活ができる 心の故郷であり ハーレム ルネッサンスの地でした またハーレムは 今世紀におけるあり方を探って 過去や未来も見つめています ハーレムが面白いのは 他の都市とは違い 過去と現在と未来を 同時進行で考えていることです ハーレムの今を語るには 過去や未来の話がつき物なのです そう考えていた時に 思いついた疑問が 美術館が 地域のつなぎ役として 地域社会に自らを再認識させる 変化の担い手となる芸術家に 場所を提供できないかです 1月20日のハーレムです とても素晴らしい日でした

現在私はハーレムの スタジオ美術館で展覧会をし 芸術の可能性を発見する意味を 考えています 皆さんはどう思いますか 皆さんと同じような環境で 異文化との対話や 創造的革新的な考えの中で 芸術家が創作できるとしたら? 私はそういう形の支援を目指して 若い黒人の芸術家と仕事をしています 芸術家の仕事は 素晴らしい作品を作る他に 真のつなぎ役をすることです

私の取り組みを語る上で 歴史に触れる事は重要で スタジオ美術館の 1968年の開館は 歴史的な瞬間でした その後の出来事も考慮した上で 現在の私達の特権的な立場を 考えてみましょう そしてこの美術館は 公民権運動が盛んな時代に設立され 米国の芸術史における アフリカ系米国人の 歴史と伝統の持つ意味を ジャコブ ローレンスや ロメール ベアデンの 作品を通じて探り

今日に至ったという事に 思いを馳せて下さい 1975年にモハメド アリが ハーバード大で講演をしました 講演後ある学生から 詩を作って欲しいと頼まれた彼は 「Me,We」と答えました 個人と社会の関係をとらえた 意味深い言葉です 私が芸術家と接しながら 探っているのは 今世紀における 黒人芸術運動の状況であり 現代における 文化的な運動の意味です アリの「Me,We」の言葉は 現代社会に対する 重大な予言でした

私の目標を達成するために 「自由形式」 「頻度」 「流動」の テーマで行った 一連の展覧会について お話ししましょう 展覧会の目的は 現在活躍していて 将来も期待できる 若い黒人アーティストを 発掘することでした この展覧会では特に 現代において 芸術をつなぎ役と とらえる考え方に 疑問を投げかけ 黒人文化に限らず 私達が一般的に 文化を再定義する上で 芸術の持つ意味を 探りました 私は何人かの芸術家を 「ポスト ブラック」と 呼んでいます その芸術家達は 過去の歴史を踏まえたうえで 歴史的一歩を踏み出す人達です

このような中で私が 思いついたことがあります 現在の米国の アフリカ系米国人の立場が どういうものであるのかを 芸術で表現したり みんなで こうした事を 話し合うに ふさわしい 美術館があるのかです 若い芸術家が持っている あり余るパワーを考えると とても わくわくします 芸術家の作品は 自分の心情や意見だけを 革新的な芸術表現として 反映させている ものばかりではありません より大切なことは 芸術作品が コミュニティの議論を活性化し 私達が現状や将来の状況を 理解できることです 人種というテーマが 思いがけないほど 様々な場面で 顔を出すことに いつも驚いています 芸術家達が積極的に そのテーマに取り組んでいるのも 素晴らしいことです 私が芸術に関心を持ち 疑問を投げかけ 展覧会を開くのはこのためです

この展覧会では 8年間で40人の若手作家が 他の世代の人々に 暗に伝えたい事を 深く考えました 作品が世界中を回り 広く世に出ると同時に 私達が直面している問題を 内部の人間として考えることを 芸術家はどう思うのでしょう この展覧会はまた 創造性について考え 米国の都市において どう育むかを考えました

話をまとめましょう この展覧会は私にとって 文化の言説を国際的な文脈で捉え直すためのものでした 展覧会の最後の題材は 「流動性」でした ここで念頭に置いたのは 世界中の芸術家による 本物のネットワークです ハーレムから外を見るのではなく ぐるりと世界を見渡せるように アフリカ出身の芸術家を集めました 私達にもアフリカ大陸が 21世紀に持つ意味は 分かると思います 芸術家や作品を見ると アフリカの事を考えるのです それらは将来について何を語り 私達の広い対話の中に アフリカを含めるために 芸術作品はどのような 可能性を作り出せるのかを 考えるようになりました さて 芸術作品を見て

私が発見するものは? 芸術を考えるとき 私が考えることは? 学芸員の良い所は 新しい作品に会える事や わくわくする作品に会える事 だけではありません 自分自身を発見したり 展覧会を開いて 美しさや権力や 私達自身について お互いに 話し合える場を 私が提供できる楽しさ そのために毎朝目覚めて 現代の芸術家について いろいろと考えているのです


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