TED日本語 - ジョゼット・シーラン: 今こそ飢餓のない世界を


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TED日本語 - ジョゼット・シーラン: 今こそ飢餓のない世界を

TED Talks


Ending hunger now


Josette Sheeran






Well after many years working in trade and economics,four years ago, I found myself working on the front lines of human vulnerability. And I found myself in the places where people are fighting every day to survive and can't even obtain a meal. This red cup comes from Rwanda from a child named Fabian. And I carry this around as a symbol, really, of the challenge and also the hope. Because one cup of food a day changes Fabian's life completely. But what I'd like to talk about today is the fact that this morning, about a billion people on Earth -- or one out of every seven -- woke up and didn't even know how to fill this cup. One out of every seven people.

First, I'll ask you: Why should you care? Why should we care? For most people, if they think about hunger, they don't have to go far back on their own family history -- maybe in their own lives, or their parents' lives, or their grandparents' lives -- to remember an experience of hunger. I rarely find an audience where people can go back very far without that experience. Some are driven by compassion, feel it's perhaps one of the fundamental acts of humanity. As Gandhi said, "To a hungry man, a piece of bread is the face of God." Others worry about peace and security, stability in the world. We saw the food riots in 2008, after what I call the silent tsunami of hunger swept the globe when food prices doubled overnight. The destabilizing effects of hunger are known throughout human history. One of the most fundamental acts of civilization is to ensure people can get enough food.

Others think about Malthusian nightmares. Will we be able to feed a population that will be nine billion in just a few decades? This is not a negotiable thing, hunger. People have to eat. There's going to be a lot of people. This is jobs and opportunity all the way up and down the value chain. But I actually came to this issue in a different way. This is a picture of me and my three children. In 1987, I was a new mother with my first child and was holding her and feeding her when an image very similar to this came on the television. And this was yet another famine in Ethiopia. One two years earlier had killed more than a million people. But it never struck me as it did that moment, because on that image was a woman trying to nurse her baby, and she had no milk to nurse. And the baby's cry really penetrated me, as a mother. And I thought, there's nothing more haunting than the cry of a child that can not be returned with food -- the most fundamental expectation of every human being. And it was at that moment that I just was filled with the challenge and the outrage that actually we know how to fix this problem.

This isn't one of those rare diseases that we don't have the solution for. We know how to fix hunger. A hundred years ago, we didn't. We actually have the technology and systems. And I was just struck that this is out of place. At our time in history, these images are out of place. Well guess what? This is last week in northern Kenya. Yet again, the face of starvation at large scale with more than nine million people wondering if they can make it to the next day. In fact, what we know now is that every 10 seconds we lose a child to hunger. This is more than HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined. And we know that the issue is not just production of food.

One of my mentors in life was Norman Borlaug, my hero. But today I'm going to talk about access to food, because actually this year and last year and during the 2008 food crisis, there was enough food on Earth for everyone to have 2,700 kilocalories. So why is it that we have a billion people who can't find food? And I also want to talk about what I call our new burden of knowledge. In 2008, Lancet compiled all the research and put forward the compelling evidence that if a child in its first thousand days -- from conception to two years old -- does not have adequate nutrition, the damage is irreversible. Their brains and bodies will be stunted. And here you see a brain scan of two children -- one who had adequate nutrition, another, neglected and who was deeply malnourished. And we can see brain volumes up to 40 percent less in these children. And in this slide you see the neurons and the synapses of the brain don't form. And what we know now is this has huge impact on economies, which I'll talk about later. But also the earning potential of these children is cut in half in their lifetime due to the stunting that happens in early years.

So this burden of knowledge drives me. Because actually we know how to fix it very simply. And yet, in many places, a third of the children, by the time they're three already are facing a life of hardship due to this. I'd like to talk about some of the things I've seen on the front lines of hunger, some of the things I've learned in bringing my economic and trade knowledge and my experience in the private sector. I'd like to talk about where the gap of knowledge is.

Well first, I'd like to talk about the oldest nutritional method on Earth, breastfeeding. You may be surprised to know that a child could be saved every 22 seconds if there was breastfeeding in the first six months of life. But in Niger, for example, less than seven percent of the children are breastfed for the first six months of life, exclusively. In Mauritania, less than three percent. This is something that can be transformed with knowledge. This message, this word, can come out that this is not an old-fashioned way of doing business; it's a brilliant way of saving your child's life. And so today we focus on not just passing out food, but making sure the mothers have enough enrichment, and teaching them about breastfeeding.

The second thing I'd like to talk about: If you were living in a remote village somewhere, your child was limp, and you were in a drought, or you were in floods, or you were in a situation where there wasn't adequate diversity of diet, what would you do? Do you think you could go to the store and get a choice of power bars, like we can, and pick the right one to match? Well I find parents out on the front lines very aware their children are going down for the count. And I go to those shops, if there are any, or out to the fields to see what they can get, and they can not obtain the nutrition. Even if they know what they need to do, it's not available.

And I'm very excited about this, because one thing we're working on is transforming the technologies that are very available in the food industry to be available for traditional crops. And this is made with chickpeas, dried milk and a host of vitamins, matched to exactly what the brain needs. It costs 17 cents for us to produce this as, what I call, food for humanity. We did this with food technologists in India and Pakistan -- really about three of them. But this is transforming 99 percent of the kids who get this. One package,17 cents a day -- their malnutrition is overcome. So I am convinced that if we can unlock the technologies that are commonplace in the richer world to be able to transform foods. And this is climate-proof. It doesn't need to be refrigerated, it doesn't need water, which is often lacking. And these types of technologies, I see, have the potential to transform the face of hunger and nutrition, malnutrition out on the front lines.

The next thing I want to talk about is school feeding. Eighty percent of the people in the world have no food safety net. When disaster strikes -- the economy gets blown, people lose a job, floods, war, conflict, bad governance, all of those things -- there is nothing to fall back on. And usually the institutions -- churches, temples, other things -- do not have the resources to provide a safety net. What we have found working with the World Bank is that the poor man's safety net, the best investment, is school feeding. And if you fill the cup with local agriculture from small farmers, you have a transformative effect. Many kids in the world can't go to school because they have to go beg and find a meal. But when that food is there, it's transformative. It costs less than 25 cents a day to change a kid's life.

But what is most amazing is the effect on girls. In countries where girls don't go to school and you offer a meal to girls in school, we see enrollment rates about 50 percent girls and boys. We see a transformation in attendance by girls. And there was no argument, because it's incentive. Families need the help. And we find that if we keep girls in school later, they'll stay in school until they're 16, and won't get married if there's food in school. Or if they get an extra ration of food at the end of the week -- it costs about 50 cents -- will keep a girl in school, and they'll give birth to a healthier child, because the malnutrition is sent generation to generation.

We know that there's boom and bust cycles of hunger. We know this. Right now on the Horn of Africa, we've been through this before. So is this a hopeless cause? Absolutely not. I'd like to talk about what I call our warehouses for hope. Cameroon, northern Cameroon, boom and bust cycles of hunger every year for decades. Food aid coming in every year when people are starving during the lean seasons. Well two years ago, we decided, let's transform the model of fighting hunger, and instead of giving out the food aid, we put it into food banks. And we said, listen, during the lean season, take the food out. You manage, the village manages these warehouses. And during harvest, put it back with interest, food interest. So add in five percent,10 percent more food. For the past two years,500 of these villages where these are have not needed any food aid -- they're self-sufficient. And the food banks are growing. And they're starting school feeding programs for their children by the people in the village. But they've never had the ability to build even the basic infrastructure or the resources. I love this idea that came from the village level: three keys to unlock that warehouse. Food is gold there. And simple ideas can transform the face, not of small areas, of big areas of the world.

I'd like to talk about what I call digital food. Technology is transforming the face of food vulnerability in places where you see classic famine. Amartya Sen won his Nobel Prize for saying, "Guess what, famines happen in the presence of food because people have no ability to buy it." We certainly saw that in 2008. We're seeing that now in the Horn of Africa where food prices are up 240 percent in some areas over last year. Food can be there and people can't buy it.

Well this picture -- I was in Hebron in a small shop, this shop, where instead of bringing in food, we provide digital food, a card. It says "bon appetit" in Arabic. And the women can go in and swipe and get nine food items. They have to be nutritious, and they have to be locally produced. And what's happened in the past year alone is the dairy industry -- where this card's used for milk and yogurt and eggs and hummus -- the dairy industry has gone up 30 percent. The shopkeepers are hiring more people. It is a win-win-win situation that starts the food economy moving. We now deliver food in over 30 countries over cell phones, transforming even the presence of refugees in countries, and other ways.

Perhaps most exciting to me is an idea that Bill Gates, Howard Buffett and others have supported boldly, which is to ask the question: What if, instead of looking at the hungry as victims -- and most of them are small farmers who can not raise enough food or sell food to even support their own families -- what if we view them as the solution, as the value chain to fight hunger? What if from the women in Africa who can not sell any food -- there's no roads, there's no warehouses, there's not even a tarp to pick the food up with -- what if we give the enabling environment for them to provide the food to feed the hungry children elsewhere? And Purchasing for Progress today is in 21 countries. And guess what? In virtually every case, when poor farmers are given a guaranteed market -- if you say, "We will buy 300 metric tons of this. We'll pick it up. We'll make sure it's stored properly." -- their yields have gone up two-,three-, fourfold and they figure it out, because it's the first guaranteed opportunity they've had in their life. And we're seeing people transform their lives. Today, food aid, our food aid -- huge engine -- 80 percent of it is bought in the developing world. Total transformation that can actually transform the very lives that need the food.

Now you'd ask, can this be done at scale? These are great ideas, village-level ideas. Well I'd like to talk about Brazil, because I've taken a journey to Brazil over the past couple of years, when I read that Brazil was defeating hunger faster than any nation on Earth right now. And what I've found is, rather than investing their money in food subsidies and other things, they invested in a school feeding program. And they require that a third of that food come from the smallest farmers who would have no opportunity. And they're doing this at huge scale after President Lula declared his goal of ensuring everyone had three meals a day. And this zero hunger program costs .5 percent of GDP and has lifted many millions of people out of hunger and poverty. It is transforming the face of hunger in Brazil, and it's at scale, and it's creating opportunities. I've gone out there; I've met with the small farmers who have built their livelihoods on the opportunity and platform provided by this.

Now if we look at the economic imperative here, this isn't just about compassion. The fact is studies show that the cost of malnutrition and hunger -- the cost to society, the burden it has to bear -- is on average six percent, and in some countries up to 11 percent, of GDP a year. And if you look at the 36 countries with the highest burden of malnutrition, that's 260 billion lost from a productive economy every year. Well, the World Bank estimates it would take about 10 billion dollars -- 10.3 -- to address malnutrition in those countries. You look at the cost-benefit analysis, and my dream is to take this issue, not just from the compassion argument, but to the finance ministers of the world, and say we can not afford to not invest in the access to adequate, affordable nutrition for all of humanity.

The amazing thing I've found is nothing can change on a big scale without the determination of a leader. When a leader says, "Not under my watch," everything begins to change. And the world can come in with enabling environments and opportunities to do this. And the fact that France has put food at the center of the G20 is really important. Because food is one issue that can not be solved person by person, nation by nation. We have to stand together. And we're seeing nations in Africa. WFP's been able to leave 30 nations because they have transformed the face of hunger in their nations.

What I would like to offer here is a challenge. I believe we're living at a time in human history where it's just simply unacceptable that children wake up and don't know where to find a cup of food. Not only that, transforming hunger is an opportunity, but I think we have to change our mindsets. I am so honored to be here with some of the world's top innovators and thinkers. And I would like you to join with all of humanity to draw a line in the sand and say, "No more. No more are we going to accept this." And we want to tell our grandchildren that there was a terrible time in history where up to a third of the children had brains and bodies that were stunted, but that exists no more.

Thank you.


貿易と経済の仕事を 4年前に辞めて 現在は弱い立場の人々の中で 働いています そこではみんなが 必死に生きようとしても 1日何も食べられません この赤いカップはルワンダの フェイビアンからもらいました いつも持ち歩いています これは挑戦と希望の 象徴なのです 1日カップ1杯の食物で フェイビアンの生活は改善しました そしてこれから話すのは 次の事実についてです 地球上の約10億人 つまり7人に1人が今朝も このカップに食べ物を 満たす方法が分からない 7人に1人がです

この問題に私たちが 取り組む理由は何でしょう たいていの人は 飢饉といわれれば 遠い昔ではなく 自分自身や両親 祖父母の時代に 経験していることでしょう ほとんどの聴衆の方は 少し遡れば飢饉の経験に行き当たります 深い同情にかられて 人道的行為が必要と 感じる人もいます ガンジーも言っています 「飢えた者に一切れのパンを」とね また世界の平和と安全を 心配する人たちもいます 2008年に食糧暴動が起きたのは 飢餓という「静かな津波」が地球を襲い 一夜で食料の値段が倍になったからです 歴史的にみても飢餓は 社会を不安定にする要因です ですから文明社会の条件として 十分な食糧確保が必要なのです

マルサスの悪夢を懸念する人は 人口が90億になる数十年後に 食料が足りるか心配します 空腹は他のことでは 埋め合わせできません 多くの人は飢餓の解決を 食糧のバリューチェーンの仕事と考えるでしょう しかしこの問題について 私は違う立場です 私と3人の子供たちです 1987年に最初の子供を 出産しました 子供を抱いて授乳中に テレビでこれに似た 映像を目にしました エチオピアはその数年前から 飢饉が続き 100万人以上が死んでいました しかしその姿を見てはじめて 私はショックを受けました 赤ん坊を育てる母親に ミルクがないのです その赤ん坊の泣き声が 私の心をえぐりました 泣いている子供に 食事を与えられないのは どれほど恐ろしいことでしょう ヒトの基本的な欲求です まさにこのときに この問題へ怒りを持って 誰でも分かっている解決方法に 挑戦しようと決めました

飢餓は治療法がわからない まれな難病ではありません 解決法は分かっています 100年前は無理でしたが 今はテクノロジーが発達しています 飢饉という現象は もう時代遅れなのです 私たちの時代にあってはならない 実際はどうでしょう 北部ケニアで先週撮影された写真 またもや 大規模な飢餓に 直面しています 900万人以上の人が 翌日の生活を心配しています 実際に 今この瞬間にも 10秒に1人の子供が 餓死しているのです この死者数は エイズや マラリアや結核の合計以上 ただし飢餓の解決には 食料の生産だけでは不十分です

ノーマン・ボーローグ氏は 私も尊敬しています しかし食料へのアクセスも大切です 実際に今年や去年 2008年の食糧危機のときも 世界には一人あたり 2700キロカロリー分の食物がありました それなのになぜ 10億の人々には 食物がないのでしょう また私たちには 知ったゆえの責任があります 2008年に 『ランセット』誌の調査で 明らかになったのは 胎児から2歳になるまでの 最初の1000日間で 十分な栄養が与えられないと 後遺症として 脳や体に発達障害が残ります 2人の子供の脳の写真です 栄養が足りている子供と 育児放棄された ひどい栄養失調の子供です ご覧の通り 脳の容積が 40パーセントぐらい 小さくなっています またこちらの子供は 脳内の神経やシナプスが 形成されていません このことが経済に大きな影響を生じることも 後ほどお話します こうした子供たちは生涯の収入が 普通の人の半分ほどです それも人生の初期の 発達障害が原因なのです

この事も私の活動の動機です 私たちには飢餓を解決する方法が 分かっているのです それなのに世界中で 子供の3人に1人が 3歳になるまでに 飢餓という苦しみに 直面しています これから みなさんに 飢餓の現場で見たことと 経済や貿易の知識や 民間企業の経験から 学んだことをお話します 知識の差についての話もします

先ずは昔からの栄養の与え方である 授乳の話をします 驚く事に 最初の6ヶ月を母乳で育てれば 22秒に1人の子供を救えます しかしニジェールでは わずか7パーセント以下の 子供たちしか 最初の6ヶ月を母乳で育てられません モーリタニアでは3パーセント以下です この状況は知識があれば変えられます 知識を広めましょう 母乳で育てるのは時代遅れではなく 子供の命を救う 優れた方法なのです ですから食料を届けるだけでなく 母乳について母親に知ってもらうことにも 私たちは力を入れています

次に 考えてみて下さい あなたがへき地の村に暮らし 足の不自由な子供を抱え 干ばつや洪水などで 食物が十分ではないとしたら どうしますか お店に行って 栄養バーの棚から選んで 不足を補えますか 飢餓に直面している親達は 子供が動けなくなるのは分かっています お店があればそこに行くし 作物が実る畑なら収穫もします でも実際は栄養をとるために 必要な行動ができません

私たちが取り組んでいる 興味深い活動があります 食品産業で使われている 科学技術を 伝統的な作物向けに 転換して利用する事です これはヒヨコマメと粉末ミルクに ビタミンを加え 脳に必要な栄養が入った 17セントでつくれる 「人道的な食物」です インドとパキスタンの 食糧技術者3人と協力して 開発しました そしてこれを食べた 99パーセントの子供は 毎日1袋17セントで 栄養不良から脱しました 豊かな国の 科学技術が自由に使えれば 食物の改良ができると 確信したのです 厳しい気候にも耐え 冷蔵や水などの 必要はありません こうした科学技術が 飢餓と栄養失調を 現場から根絶する可能性を 秘めているのです

次に学校給食の話をします 世界の8割の人は 食糧が保障されていません ひとたび悲惨な出来事が― 経済破綻や失業の増加 洪水や戦争などの対立 政策の失敗などが起これば 頼るものはありません 教会や寺院などにも 大体の場合において 安心できるだけの 蓄えがありません 世界銀行との仕事では 貧しい人の食事を保障するには 学校給食がよいと知りました このカップを 地元の農家の作物で満たせれば 変化を起こす効果があります 物乞いで食料を得ていて 学校へ行けない子供たちも 学校で食事がでれば 状況は変わります その費用は1日25セント以下です

特に少女への影響が大きいです 少女が学校へ行かない国では 学校で食事をだすことで 男女の入学者比率が 半分ずつになり 少女たちの出席率も向上しました 親からの反対はありません むしろ奨励されました 家族も助かります 学校に行く少女は 16歳になるまで残り 食糧のために結婚したりしません 週末には多めに食べ物を 与えるようにすると 50 セントかかりますが 少女たちは学校に通い 健康な子供を産みます 逆に栄養失調の状況は 親から子へ受け継がれます

飢餓が繰り返し訪れることは みんな知っています 現在はアフリカの角で飢餓が起きています では救いようがないかと言えば それは違います これから「希望の倉庫」の話をします 北部カメルーンではここ数十年 毎年の飢餓に見舞われています 食料が不足する時期には 毎年のように食糧援助が届けられます 2年前に私たちは 今までの飢餓との闘い方を変えました 食糧を配らずに食料銀行に預け こう言ったのです 「この食糧で不足を補い この倉庫は村で経営し 収穫の時期には利息をつけて 食物で返しなさい 5から10パーセント多く戻すのです」 この2年間で 参加した村の500ほどが 自給できるようになり 「食糧銀行」は広まっています 子供の学校給食から始めた 村の人々ですが 彼らには基本的な施設などを 構築する能力すら ありませんでした 村の人たちのアイディアで 倉庫を開ける鍵を3つにしました 食料は黄金と同じだからです 単純な発想で状況は変えられるのです 小さな地域だけでなく より広い地域でも同じです

「デジタル食糧」について話します 科学技術によって 飢饉になっている場所での 食糧不足を変えられます アマルティア・セン氏は 「目の前の食料を買えないので飢餓が生じる」と解明し ノーベル賞を受けました 2008年の食糧価格高騰も アフリカの角地帯では この一年で食糧価格が 2.4倍に上昇したので 目の前の食物を買えないのです

これはヘブロンの商店 私たちは食糧を持ち込むのではなく アラビア語で「いただきます」と書かれた カードを配りました 女性たちは店に行ってカードを通し 9つの食料をもらいます それらは栄養価が高くて 地元でつくられた食物です 昨年だけの成果で このカードで購入する ミルクやヨーグルトや卵などを 提供した酪農家では 30パーセント売り上げが伸び 商店の雇用も増えました ウィン・ウィン・ウィンで 食糧経済が回り始めたのです 現在では30カ国以上で 携帯電話による 食糧配給を行い 難民たちの状況まで 変えているのです

ビル・ゲイツやバフェットが 強く支持している考え方で 興味深いアイディアがあります こんな問いかけです 飢餓の人を犠牲者ではなく 小規模農家で 家計を支える十分な食物を 生産できないと考えたら? 人々を飢餓と闘うための バリューチェーンと考えたら? アフリカの女性達が 食物を売れないのは 道もないし倉庫もない 収穫物を入れる袋もないからですが 女性たちが食糧を 他の場所の空腹な子供に 提供できたらどうでしょう? 現在21カ国で「進歩への購入」をしています これは何でしょう ほとんどの場合 貧しい農民も市場が保証されれば つまり「これを300トン買い 収穫して適切に保管しよう」と言われれば 収量が何倍にも増えるものです こうした保証は 農民にとって初めてのことです 人々の生活が変わってきました 現在では私たちの 莫大な食糧援助の 8割が途上国で調達されています 食料が必要な人の生活を 完全に変えるものです

どのくらいの規模でできるのでしょうか? 村レベルでしか適用できないのでしょうか? 数年前に旅をした ブラジルの話をしましょう どこよりも飢餓を減らしたと 書かれていました 実際に現地の政府は 食糧購入の助成金ではなく 学校給食に お金をかけていました 3分の1の材料は地元の 小規模農家の作物としました この大規模な活動は ルーラ大統領が国民に約束した 1日3回の食事を実現するためでした 「空腹ゼロ」の政策に GDPの0.5パーセントをかけて 何百万もの人々が空腹と貧困から 抜け出すことができました ブラジルでは飢餓の状況が変わり 好機も生まれています 実際に会った小規模農家は 給食制度による 販売市場を通じて 生計を立てていました

同情だけではなく 経済的必然性も考えましょう 研究によると 栄養失調と飢餓により 社会が負担する 毎年の費用は GDPの6パーセントから 高いところでは 11パーセントになります 栄養失調が深刻な 36カ国を合計すれば 2600億の経済的損失が 毎年生じています 世界銀行の試算によると 全世界の栄養失調問題に 取り組むには 103億ドルかかります 費用対効果の分析から この問題を考えましょう 同情的な議論ではなく 世界の経済大臣に対し 全ての人類の 適切な栄養のために 投資しないわけには いかないと伝えましょう

驚いたことに リーダーの決定がなければ 大規模に変化しないのです リーダーの「手に負えなく」なった時に 全てが変わり始めるのです そして他の国が介入して 問題と取り組む環境が整うのです フランスのG20では 食糧問題が重要な議題として 取上げられました 食糧問題は個々人や 個々の国では解決できません 国際的な団結が必要です アフリカの国々では WFPは30カ国から撤退しました これらの国で飢餓の状況を 変えたからです

挑戦して欲しい事があります 人類史上において現代は 子供が目覚めたとき カップ一杯の食物もない事を 許してはいけない時代です そしてまた 飢餓を変えるのは 私たちの心を変える ひとつの機会なのです 光栄な事に今日は 世界の優秀な人々と同席できたので みなさんに参加して欲しいのです 砂に線を引いて 「もうこれ以上は 認められない」と言って下さい 孫に話せる時代にしましょう 歴史をさかのぼれば 子供たちの3分の1が 脳や体が萎縮していたが 今はそんな事はなくなったと



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