TED日本語 - アポロ・ロビンス: 注意をそらすテクニック



TED日本語 - アポロ・ロビンス: 注意をそらすテクニック

TED Talks

The art of misdirection
Apollo Robbins


世界一のスリとして名高いアポロ・ロビンスは、時計を盗みとりつつ、人間の興味深い反応を研究しています。抱腹絶倒の実演では、バイキング料理でも選ぶようにTEDGlobal 2013の参加者から一人を選びます。そして見せてくれるのは、人間の知覚の弱点を利用して、財布を抜き取り、持ち主の肩に載せても全く気づかない様子です。


Do you think it's possible to control someone's attention? Even more than that, what about predicting human behavior? I think those are interesting ideas, if you could. I mean, for me, that would be the perfect superpower, actually kind of an evil way of approaching it. But for myself, in the past, I've spent the last 20 years studying human behavior from a rather unorthodox way: picking pockets. When we think of misdirection, we think of something as looking off to the side, when actually it's often the things that are right in front of us that are the hardest things to see, the things that you look at every day that you're blinded to.

For example, how many of you still have your cell phones on you right now? Great. Double-check. Make sure you still have them on you. I was doing some shopping beforehand. Now you've looked at them probably a few times today, but I'm going to ask you a question about them. Without looking at your cell phone directly yet, can you remember the icon in the bottom right corner? Bring them out, check, and see how accurate you were. How'd you do? Show of hands. Did we get it?

Now that you're done looking at those, close them down, because every phone has something in common. No matter how you organize the icons, you still have a clock on the front. So, without looking at your phone, what time was it? You just looked at your clock, right? It's an interesting idea. Now, I'll ask you to take that a step further with a game of trust. Close your eyes. I realize I'm asking you to do that while you just heard there's a pickpocket in the room, but close your eyes.

Now, you've been watching me for about 30 seconds. With your eyes closed, what am I wearing? Make your best guess. What color is my shirt? What color is my tie? Now open your eyes. By a show of hands, were you right?

It's interesting, isn't it? Some of us are a little bit more perceptive than others. It seems that way. But I have a different theory about that, that model of attention. They have fancy models of attention, Posner's trinity model of attention. For me, I like to think of it very simple, like a surveillance system. It's kind of like you have all these fancy sensors, and inside your brain is a little security guard. For me, I like to call him Frank. So Frank is sitting at a desk. He's got all sorts of cool information in front of him, high-tech equipment, he's got cameras, he's got a little phone that he can pick up, listen to the ears, all these senses, all these perceptions. But attention is what steers your perceptions, is what controls your reality. It's the gateway to the mind. If you don't attend to something, you can't be aware of it. But ironically, you can attend to something without being aware of it. That's why there's the cocktail effect: When you're in a party, you're having conversations with someone, and yet you can recognize your name and you didn't even realize you were listening to that.

Now, for my job, I have to play with techniques to exploit this, to play with your attention as a limited resource. So if I could control how you spend your attention, if I could maybe steal your attention through a distraction. Now, instead of doing it like misdirection and throwing it off to the side, instead, what I choose to focus on is Frank, to be able to play with the Frank inside your head, your little security guard, and get you, instead of focusing on your external senses, just to go internal for a second. So if I ask you to access a memory, like, what is that? What just happened? Do you have a wallet? Do you have an American Express in your wallet? And when I do that, your Frank turns around. He accesses the file. He has to rewind the tape. And what's interesting is, he can't rewind the tape at the same time that he's trying to process new data.

Now, I mean, this sounds like a good theory, but I could talk for a long time and tell you lots of things, and they may be true, a portion of them, but I think it's better if I tried to show that to you here live. So if I come down, I'm going to do a little bit of shopping. Just hold still where you are.

Hello, how are you? It's lovely to see you. You did a wonderful job onstage. You have a lovely watch that doesn't come off very well. Do you have your ring as well? Good. Just taking inventory. You're like a buffet. It's hard to tell where to start, there's so many great things.

Hi, how are you? Good to see you.

Hi, sir, could you stand up for me, please? Just right where you are. Oh, you're married. You follow directions well. That's nice to meet you, sir. You don't have a whole lot inside your pockets. Anything down by the pocket over here? Hopefully so. Have a seat. There you go. You're doing well.

Hi, sir, how are you? Good to see you, sir. You have a ring, a watch. Do you have a wallet on you? Joe: I don't. Apollo Robbins: Well, we'll find one for you. Come on up this way, Joe. Give Joe a round of applause. Come on up Joe. Let's play a game.


Pardon me.

I don't think I need this clicker anymore. You can have that. Thank you very much. I appreciate that.

Come on up to the stage, Joe. Let's play a little game now. Do you have anything in your front pockets? Joe: Money. AR: Money. All right, let's try that. Can you stand right over this way for me? Turn around and, let's see, if I give you something that belongs to me, this is just something I have, a poker chip. Hold out your hand for me. Watch it kind of closely. Now this is a task for you to focus on. Now you have your money in your front pocket here? Joe: Yup. AR: Good. I'm not going to actually put my hand in your pocket. I'm not ready for that kind of commitment. One time a guy had a hole in his pocket, and that was rather traumatizing for me. I was looking for his wallet and he gave me his phone number. It was a big miscommunication.

So let's do this simply. Squeeze your hand. Squeeze it tight. Do you feel the poker chip in your hand? Joe: I do. AR: Would you be surprised if I could take it out of your hand? Say yes. Joe: Very.AR: Good. Open your hand. Thank you very much. I'll cheat if you give me a chance. Make it harder for me. Just use your hand. Grab my wrist, but squeeze, squeeze firm. Did you see it go? Joe: No.AR: No, it's not here. Open your hand. See, while we're focused on the hand, it's sitting on your shoulder right now. Go ahead and take it off. Now, let's try that again. Hold your hand out flat. Open it up all the way. Put your hand up a little bit higher, but watch it close there, Joe. See, if I did it slowly, it'd be back on your shoulder.

(Laughter) Joe, we're going to keep doing this till you catch it. You're going to get it eventually. I have faith in you. Squeeze firm. You're human, you're not slow. It's back on your shoulder. You were focused on your hand. That's why you were distracted. While you were watching this, I couldn't quite get your watch off. It was difficult. Yet you had something inside your front pocket. Do you remember what it was? Joe: Money. AR: Check your pocket. See if it's still there. Is it still there? (Laughter) Oh, that's where it was. Go ahead and put it away. We're just shopping. This trick's more about the timing, really. I'm going to try to push it inside your hand. Put your other hand on top for me, would you? It's amazingly obvious now, isn't it? It looks a lot like the watch I was wearing, doesn't it? (Laughter) (Applause)

Joe: That's pretty good. That's pretty good.AR: Oh, thanks. But it's only a start. Let's try it again, a little bit differently. Hold your hands together. Put your other hand on top. Now if you're watching this little token, this obviously has become a little target. It's like a red herring. If we watch this kind of close, it looks like it goes away. It's not back on your shoulder. It falls out of the air, lands right back in the hand. Did you see it go? Yeah, it's funny. We've got a little guy. He's union. He works up there all day. If I did it slowly, if it goes straightaway, it lands down by your pocket. I believe is it in this pocket, sir? No, don't reach in your pocket. That's a different show. So -- (Squeaking noise) -- that's rather strange. They have shots for that. Can I show them what that is? That's rather bizarre. Is this yours, sir? I have no idea how that works. We'll just send that over there.

That's great. I need help with this one. Step over this way for me. Now don't run away. You had something down by your pants pocket. I was checking mine. I couldn't find everything, but I noticed you had something here. Can I feel the outside of your pocket for a moment? Down here I noticed this. Is this something of yours, sir? Is this? I have no idea. That's a shrimp.

Joe: Yeah. I'm saving it for later.

AR: You've entertained all of these people in a wonderful way, better than you know. So we'd love to give you this lovely watch as a gift. (Laughter) Hopefully it matches his taste. But also, we have a couple of other things, a little bit of cash, and then we have a few other things. These all belong to you, along with a big round of applause from all your friends. (Applause)

Joe, thank you very much.


So, same question I asked you before, but this time you don't have to close your eyes. What am I wearing?



Attention is a powerful thing. Like I said, it shapes your reality. So, I guess I'd like to pose that question to you. If you could control somebody's attention, what would you do with it?

Thank you.


皆さんは他人の注意力を自由に操れると思いますか? さらに ― 行動の予測はできるでしょうか? 可能なら面白いですよね それは本物の超能力でしょうし 悪用だってできるはずです 私は この20年間人間の行動を 普通とは違ったやり方で研究してきました 「スリ」を通してです ミスディレクションというと 人の視線をそらすことだと思われがちですが 実際 一番目に入りにくいのは 目の前のものだし 普段 目にするものこそ見えなくなりがちです

例えば 皆さんは 今 携帯を持っていますか? ちゃんとあるか確認してください さっき私が盗ったかも知れませんよ 今日 何度か見ているはずです そこで質問です 画面を見ずに 右下のアイコンを思い出せますか? 当たっているか確認してください どうですか?当たった人は手を上げて

さあ 終わったら閉じて どの携帯にも共通点があります アイコンをどう並べようと 目立つのが時計です では携帯を見ずに時間が言えますか? さっき時計も見えたはずです 面白いでしょう今度は信頼関係が必要です 目を閉じて あえてお願いします ここにはスリがいますけど

皆さんは私の姿を30秒は見ましたよね 目を閉じたまま服装を思い出せますか? よく考えて シャツの色は?ネクタイの色は? では目を開けて 当たった人は手を上げてください

人によって観察力が違うせいだと 思うかも知れません でも私は注意をそうは捉えていません ポズナーの注意モデルなど複雑な捉え方もありますが 私はもっと単純な監視システムの様なものだと思います 人間には いろいろなセンサーが備わっていて 頭の中に小さな警備員がいます 私はフランクと呼んでいます フランクはデスクで監視します 彼の目の前にはあらゆる情報と ハイテク機器があります カメラも音声マイクもあって あらゆる知覚 感覚が利用できます でも何を知覚するかを決定し その人の現実を操るのは心への入口である「注意」なのです 注目していなければ気付きません ただ皮肉にも 無意識に注目することがあります 「カクテルパーティー効果」です パーティーで誰かと話していても 他人の会話に 自分の名前が出ると聞いてないのにわかります

私の仕事では注意に限りがあることを 利用したテクニックを使います 相手が注意をむける方向を操作し 気を散らして注意を奪えばいいんです 私はミスディレクションや人の視線をそらすような ― 手段を使うのではなく 皆さんの頭の中にいる ― 小さな警備員のフランクを利用します 外界からの刺激に集中させないようにして 少しの間 頭の中に注意を向けさせるのです 私が記憶をたどるように仕向けて ― 何が起きた?財布はある? クレジットカードは? などと たずねるとフランクは後ろを向きます 彼は記憶を巻き戻して確認します 面白いことに記憶を確認しつつ 新しい情報を処理することはできません

もっともな理論でしょう 詳しく話してもいいですが だいたいは正しいと思います 実際に 見ていただきましょう そちらに行って品定めしましょう 皆さんはそのまま座っていて

やあ こんにちはお会いできて光栄です あなたの発表は素晴らしかった 外れにくそうな時計です 指輪もしていますね まだ調べているだけです選り取り見取りですね 色々あって目移りしますよ


ちょっとその場に立っていただけますか 結婚されているんですね どうもありがとう ポケットには あまり入っていませんこちらには何かあるかな? だといいんですがどうぞお座りください

こんにちは 指輪と時計を持っていますね 財布は持ってますか?Joe: いいえ AR: 今 見つけてあげますよ こちらに来てください 皆さん ジョーに拍手を こちらでゲームをしましょう



もうリモコンは要りませんね ありがとうございます

ジョー あがってくださいちょっとゲームをしましょう 前ポケットに何か入れてますか?Joe: お金が AR: お金ですね やってみましょう こちらに立っていただけますか 前を向いてください 私から渡すものがあります ポーカーで使うチップです 手を出してくださいよく見ていてください これを見張るのがあなたの役目です お金は前ポケットですねJoe: はい AR: なるほどポケットに手は入れません まだそこまでの関係ではないので 以前 お客さんのポケットの中に 穴が開いていてそれ以来のトラウマです 私は財布を捜していたのに 彼が電話番号をよこすんです

やることは簡単手を握ってください チップはまだありますか?Joe: はい AR: 私が抜きとったらビックリしますよね Joe: 確かにAR: 結構 ― じゃあ手を開いてください チャンスがあったらやりますよ 難易度を上げてあなたの手だけを使います 私の手首をつかんで強く握って 消えたのがわかりましたか? Joe: いいえAR: もう無くなってますよ 手を見ている間に チップはあなたの肩の上です どうぞとってください さあ もう一度 手を開いてまっすぐ伸ばして もう少し高くあげてでもしっかり注目して ほら 私がゆっくりやってもチップはまた肩の上です

(笑) あなたがチップをとれるまでやりますよ そのうちとれるはずです しっかり握ってあなたはのろまなんかじゃない 肩の上に戻っていますよ 手に集中していて気を取られたんです あなたが見ている間は時計をとったりするのは無理です ところで 前ポケットに何があったか ― 覚えていますか? Joe: お金です AR: 調べてくださいまだありますか? (笑) ありましたねまたしまっておいて この実演はタイミングが鍵です あなたの手の中に入れますね もう片方の手を重ねてください 今度はわかり易いですよね 私がしている時計に見覚えは? (笑)(拍手)

Joe: 本当にすごいAR: ありがとう でもまだほんの序の口です少し違うことをしましょう 手を重ねてください 今 チップに注目しているでしょうが 明らかに注意をそらすためのターゲットです 近くで見ていると無くなったように見えます 肩の上ではありませんよ どこからともなく手の中に落ちてきます 無くなるところは見えました? 面白いでしょ相棒が一日中 上にいるんです ゆっくりやったとしても ポケットの中に入りますここにありますね? 手は入れないでその手のショーではないので さて ― (鳴き声)みんな考えてますよ 皆さんに見せていいですか?おかしいな これはあなたの? どうしたんだろうチップを送っただけなのに

結構ですもう一つ手伝ってください こちらに来てください 逃げないでポケットの中に何かありますね 自分のを確認したらどうも何か足りません 何か入っているみたいです 外から触ってみてもいいですか? 何かありますこれはあなたのですか? なぜだろう エビが入ってる

Joe: 後で食べようと思って

AR: 皆 楽しんでくれましたあなたのおかげです 自分で気づかないうちにね だから この素敵な時計をプレゼントします(笑) 気に入るはずですよ それから まだあります 現金が少しとそれからこれも 全部あなたのものです 皆さんからの大きな拍手もね(拍手)

ジョー どうもありがとう


さて 先程と同じ質問をしましょう でも今度は目を閉じなくていいです 私の服装は?



注意力は強力です 注意力が人間の現実を生み出します 最後にこんな質問をしましょう もし誰かの注意力を自由に操れるなら あなたなら何をしますか?



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