TED日本語 - ロリー・サザーランド: 広告マンの人生の教訓

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TED日本語 - ロリー・サザーランド: 広告マンの人生の教訓

TED Talks

広告マンの人生の教訓
Life lessons from an ad man
ロリー・サザーランド
Rory Sutherland

内容

宣伝広告は、製品そのものを変えるのでなく、私たちの見方を変えることで製品の価値を高めます。ロリー・サザーランドは「知覚価値を変えることで、私たちの思う『実際の価値』と同様の満足感を与えることができる」と大胆な主張をし、私たちの人生観に興味深い影響を与える結論を提示します。

Script

This is my first time at TED. Normally, as an advertising man, I actually speak at TED Evil, which is TED's secret sister that pays all the bills. It's held every two years in Burma. And I particularly remember a really good speech by Kim Jong Il on how to get teens smoking again. (Laughter)

But, actually, it's suddenly come to me after years working in the business, that what we create in advertising, which is intangible value -- you might call it perceived value, you might call it badge value, subjective value, intangible value of some kind -- gets rather a bad rap. If you think about it, if you want to live in a world in the future where there are fewer material goods, you basically have two choices. You can either live in a world which is poorer, which people in general don't like. Or you can live in a world where actually intangible value constitutes a greater part of overall value, that actually intangible value, in many ways is a very, very fine substitute for using up labor or limited resources in the creation of things.

Here is one example. This is a train which goes from London to Paris. The question was given to a bunch of engineers, about 15 years ago, "How do we make the journey to Paris better?" And they came up with a very good engineering solution, which was to spend six billion pounds building completely new tracks from London to the coast, and knocking about 40 minutes off a three-and-half-hour journey time. Now, call me Mister Picky. I'm just an ad man ... ... but it strikes me as a slightly unimaginative way of improving a train journey merely to make it shorter. Now what is the hedonic opportunity cost on spending six billion pounds on those railway tracks?

Here is my naive advertising man's suggestion. What you should in fact do is employ all of the world's top male and female supermodels, pay them to walk the length of the train, handing out free Chateau Petrus for the entire duration of the journey. (Laughter) (Applause) Now, you'll still have about three billion pounds left in change, and people will ask for the trains to be slowed down. (Laughter)

Now, here is another naive advertising man's question again. And this shows that engineers, medical people, scientific people, have an obsession with solving the problems of reality, when actually most problems, once you reach a basic level of wealth in society, most problems are actually problems of perception. So I'll ask you another question. What on earth is wrong with placebos? They seem fantastic to me. They cost very little to develop. They work extraordinarily well. They have no side effects, or if they do, they're imaginary, so you can safely ignore them. (Laughter)

So I was discussing this. And I actually went to the Marginal Revolution blog by Tyler Cowen. I don't know if anybody knows it. Someone was actually suggesting that you can take this concept further, and actually produce placebo education. The point is that education doesn't actually work by teaching you things. It actually works by giving you the impression that you've had a very good education, which gives you an insane sense of unwarranted self-confidence, which then makes you very, very successful in later life. So, welcome to Oxford, ladies and gentlemen. (Laughter) (Applause)

But, actually, the point of placebo education is interesting. How many problems of life can be solved actually by tinkering with perception, rather than that tedious, hardworking and messy business of actually trying to change reality? Here's a great example from history. I've heard this attributed to several other kings, but doing a bit of historical research, it seems to be Fredrick the Great. Fredrick the Great of Prussia was very, very keen for the Germans to adopt the potato and to eat it, because he realized that if you had two sources of carbohydrate, wheat and potatoes, you get less price volatility in bread. And you get a far lower risk of famine, because you actually had two crops to fall back on, not one.

The only problem is: potatoes, if you think about it, look pretty disgusting. And also, 18th century Prussians ate very, very few vegetables -- rather like contemporary Scottish people. (Laughter) So, actually, he tried making it compulsory. The Prussian peasantry said, "We can't even get the dogs to eat these damn things. They are absolutely disgusting and they're good for nothing." There are even records of people being executed for refusing to grow potatoes.

So he tried plan B. He tried the marketing solution, which is he declared the potato as a royal vegetable, and none but the royal family could consume it. And he planted it in a royal potato patch, with guards who had instructions to guard over it, night and day, but with secret instructions not to guard it very well. (Laughter) Now, 18th century peasants know that there is one pretty safe rule in life, which is if something is worth guarding, it's worth stealing. Before long, there was a massive underground potato-growing operation in Germany. What he'd effectively done is he'd re-branded the potato. It was an absolute masterpiece.

I told this story and a gentleman from Turkey came up to me and said, "Very, very good marketer, Fredrick the Great. But not a patch on Ataturk." Ataturk, rather like Nicolas Sarkozy, was very keen to discourage the wearing of a veil, in Turkey, to modernize it. Now, boring people would have just simply banned the veil. But that would have ended up with a lot of awful kickback and a hell of a lot of resistance. Ataturk was a lateral thinker. He made it compulsory for prostitutes to wear the veil. (Laughter) (Applause)

I can't verify that fully, but it does not matter. There is your environmental problem solved, by the way, guys: All convicted child molesters have to drive a Porsche Cayenne. (Laughter) What Ataturk realized actually is two very fundamental things. Which is that, actually, first one, all value is actually relative. All value is perceived value.

For those of you who don't speak Spanish, jugo de naranja -- it's actually the Spanish for "orange juice." Because actually it's not the dollar. It's actually the peso in Buenos Aires. Very clever Buenos Aires street vendors decided to practice price discrimination to the detriment of any passing gringo tourists. As an advertising man, I have to admire that.

But the first thing is that all value is subjective. Second point is that persuasion is often better than compulsion. These funny signs that flash your speed at you, some of the new ones, on the bottom right, now actually show a smiley face or a frowny face, to act as an emotional trigger. What's fascinating about these signs is they cost about 10 percent of the running cost of a conventional speed camera, but they prevent twice as many accidents. So, the bizarre thing, which is baffling to conventional, classically trained economists, is that a weird little smiley face has a better effect on changing your behavior than the threat of a 60 fine and three penalty points.

Tiny little behavioral economics detail: in Italy, penalty points go backwards. You start with 12 and they take them away. Because they found that loss aversion is a more powerful influence on people's behavior. In Britain we tend to feel, "Whoa! Got another three!" Not so in Italy.

Another fantastic case of creating intangible value to replace actual or material value, which remember, is what, after all, the environmental movement needs to be about: This again is from Prussia, from, I think, about 1812,1813. The wealthy Prussians, to help in the war against the French, were encouraged to give in all their jewelry. And it was replaced with replica jewelry made of cast iron. Here's one: "Gold gab ich fur Eisen, 1813." The interesting thing is that for 50 years hence, the highest status jewelry you could wear in Prussia wasn't made of gold or diamonds. It was made of cast iron. Because actually, never mind the actual intrinsic value of having gold jewelry. This actually had symbolic value, badge value. It said that your family had made a great sacrifice in the past.

So, the modern equivalent would of course be this. (Laughter) But, actually, there is a thing, just as there are Veblen goods, where the value of the good depends on it being expensive and rare -- there are opposite kind of things where actually the value in them depends on them being ubiquitous, classless and minimalistic.

If you think about it, Shakerism was a proto-environmental movement. Adam Smith talks about 18th century America, where the prohibition against visible displays of wealth was so great, it was almost a block in the economy in New England, because even wealthy farmers could find nothing to spend their money on without incurring the displeasure of their neighbors. It's perfectly possible to create these social pressures which lead to more egalitarian societies.

What's also interesting, if you look at products that have a high component of what you might call messaging value, a high component of intangible value, versus their intrinsic value: They are often quite egalitarian. In terms of dress, denim is perhaps the perfect example of something which replaces material value with symbolic value. Coca-Cola. A bunch of you may be a load of pinkos, and you may not like the Coca-Cola company, but it's worth remembering Andy Warhol's point about Coke. What Warhol said about Coke is, he said, "What I really like about Coca-Cola is the president of the United States can't get a better Coke than the bum on the corner of the street." Now, that is, actually, when you think about it -- we take it for granted -- it's actually a remarkable achievement, to produce something that's that democratic.

Now, we basically have to change our views slightly. There is a basic view that real value involves making things, involves labor. It involves engineering. It involves limited raw materials. And that what we add on top is kind of false. It's a fake version. And there is a reason for some suspicion and uncertainly about it. It patently veers toward propaganda. However, what we do have now is a much more variegated media ecosystem in which to kind of create this kind of value, and it's much fairer.

When I grew up, this was basically the media environment of my childhood as translated into food. You had a monopoly supplier. On the left, you have Rupert Murdoch, or the BBC. (Laughter) And on your right you have a dependent public which is pathetically grateful for anything you give it. (Laughter)

Nowadays, the user is actually involved. This is actually what's called, in the digital world, "user-generated content." Although it's called agriculture in the world of food. (Laughter) This is actually called a mash-up, where you take content that someone else has produced and you do something new with it. In the world of food we call it cooking. This is food 2.0, which is food you produce for the purpose of sharing it with other people. This is mobile food. British are very good at that. Fish and chips in newspaper, the Cornish Pasty, the pie, the sandwich. We invented the whole lot of them. We're not very good at food in general. Italians do great food, but it's not very portable, generally. (Laughter)

I only learned this the other day. The Earl of Sandwich didn't invent the sandwich. He actually invented the toasty. But then, the Earl of Toasty would be a ridiculous name. (Laughter)

Finally, we have contextual communication. Now, the reason I show you Pernod -- it's only one example. Every country has a contextual alcoholic drink. In France it's Pernod. It tastes great within the borders of that country, but absolute shite if you take it anywhere else. (Laughter) Unicum in Hungary, for example. The Greeks have actually managed to produce something called Retsina, which even tastes shite when you're in Greece. (Laughter)

But so much communication now is contextual that the capacity for actually nudging people, for giving them better information -- B.J. Fogg, at the University of Stanford, makes the point that actually the mobile phone is -- He's invented the phrase, "persuasive technologies." He believes the mobile phone, by being location-specific, contextual, timely and immediate, is simply the greatest persuasive technology device ever invented.

Now, if we have all these tools at our disposal, we simply have to ask the question, and Thaler and Sunstein have, of how we can use these more intelligently. I'll give you one example. If you had a large red button of this kind, on the wall of your home, and every time you pressed it, it saved 50 dollars for you, put 50 dollars into your pension, you would save a lot more. The reason is that the interface fundamentally determines the behavior. Okay?

Now, marketing has done a very, very good job of creating opportunities for impulse buying. Yet we've never created the opportunity for impulse saving. If you did this, more people would save more. It's simply a question of changing the interface by which people make decisions, and the very nature of the decisions changes. Obviously, I don't want people to do this, because as an advertising man I tend to regard saving as just consumerism needlessly postponed. (Laughter) But if anybody did want to do that, that's the kind of thing we need to be thinking about, actually: fundamental opportunities to change human behavior.

Now, I've got an example here from Canada. There was a young intern at Ogilvy Canada called Hunter Somerville, who was working in improv in Toronto, and got a part-time job in advertising, and was given the job of advertising Shreddies. Now this is the most perfect case of creating intangible, added value, without changing the product in the slightest. Shreddies is a strange, square, whole-grain cereal, only available in New Zealand, Canada and Britain. It's Kraft's peculiar way of rewarding loyalty to the crown. (Laughter) In working out how you could re-launch Shreddies, he came up with this.

Video: (Buzzer) Man: Shreddies is supposed to be square. (Laughter)

Woman: Have any of these diamond shapes gone out? (Laughter)

Voiceover: New Diamond Shreddies cereal. Same 100 percent whole-grain wheat in a delicious diamond shape. (Applause)

Rory Sutherland: I'm not sure this isn't the most perfect example of intangible value creation. All it requires is photons, neurons, and a great idea to create this thing. I would say it's a work of genius. But, naturally, you can't do this kind of thing without a little bit of market research.

Man: So, Shreddies is actually producing a new product, which is something very exciting for them. So they are introducing new Diamond Shreddies. (Laughter) So I just want to get your first impressions when you see that, when you see the Diamond Shreddies box there. (Laughter)

Woman: Weren't they square?

Woman # 2: I'm a little bit confused. Woman # 3: They look like the squares to me.

Man: They -- Yeah, it's all in the appearance. But it's kind of like flipping a six or a nine. Like a six, if you flip it over it looks like a nine. But a six is very different from a nine.

Woman # 3: Or an "M" and a "W" . Man: An "M" and a "W", exactly.

Man # 2: [ unclear ] You just looked like you turned it on its end. But when you see it like that it's more interesting looking.

Man: Just try both of them. Take a square one there, first. (Laughter) Man: Which one did you prefer? Man # 2: The first one.

Man: The first one? (Laughter)

Rory Sutherland: Now, naturally, a debate raged. There were conservative elements in Canada, unsurprisingly, who actually resented this intrusion. So, eventually, the manufacturers actually arrived at a compromise, which was the combo pack. (Laughter) (Applause) (Laughter)

If you think it's funny, bear in mind there is an organization called the American Institute of Wine Economics, which actually does extensive research into perception of things, and discovers that except for among perhaps five or ten percent of the most knowledgeable people, there is no correlation between quality and enjoyment in wine, except when you tell the people how expensive it is, in which case they tend to enjoy the more expensive stuff more. So drink your wine blind in the future.

But this is both hysterically funny -- but I think an important philosophical point, which is, going forward, we need more of this kind of value. We need to spend more time appreciating what already exists, and less time agonizing over what else we can do.

Two quotations to more or less end with. One of them is, "Poetry is when you make new things familiar and familiar things new." Which isn't a bad definition of what our job is, to help people appreciate what is unfamiliar, but also to gain a greater appreciation, and place a far higher value on those things which are already existing. There is some evidence, by the way, that things like social networking help do that. Because they help people share news. They give badge value to everyday little trivial activities. So they actually reduce the need for actually spending great money on display, and increase the kind of third-party enjoyment you can get from the smallest, simplest things in life. Which is magic.

The second one is the second G.K. Chesterton quote of this session, which is, "We are perishing for want of wonder, not for want of wonders," which I think for anybody involved in technology, is perfectly true. And a final thing: When you place a value on things like health, love, sex and other things, and learn to place a material value on what you've previously discounted for being merely intangible, a thing not seen, you realize you're much, much wealthier than you ever imagined. Thank you very much indeed. (Applause)

TEDでの講演は初めてです 広告マンなので いつもはお金を儲ける側のTEDの秘密組織 「悪のTED」で講演しています 2年に一度ミャンマーで開催され 特に良かった演説は 金正日の 「若者に喫煙を再開させる方法」です (笑)

広告業界で長年働き 気付いたのは 宣伝広告で作り上げる無形価値― 言い換えれば知覚価値 またはブランド価値 主観価値 こうした何かしらの無形価値が 少々悪者扱いされていることです モノが少ない環境で 将来暮らすことを考えると 基本的に選択肢は2つあります 一般的に敬遠される 貧困の中で暮らすか 無形価値が 価値全体の中で 大きな割合を占める世界で生活するか 色々な意味で無形価値は 労働力や限られた資源を 使い尽くすより ずっと良い選択です

1つ例を― ロンドン発パリ行きの 列車の旅を快適にする方法を 15年程前 大勢のエンジニアに問いかけたところ 素晴らしい解決案が出ました 60億ポンドをかけ 全く新しい線路を ロンドンから沿岸まで敷き 3時間半の旅を40分短くするものです 私はただの広告マンですが 時間を短縮するだけとは 列車の旅を快適にする案として あまり想像性がない・・・ では60億ポンドを線路以外に使ったら どんな快適さが得られるか?

これは広告マンの素朴な提案ですが 世界トップレベルの 男女のスーパーモデルを雇い 旅の間ずっと高級ワインを振舞いながら車内を往復してもらうのは どうでしょう (笑) (拍手) 30億ポンドくらい余る上 乗客は 列車をもっと遅くしてくれと言うでしょう (笑)

ここでまた広告マンの素朴な疑問です この話から エンジニアや 医療従事者 科学者たちは 現実問題の解決に執着する事がわかります しかし実際 社会的な豊かさがある基準に達すると ほとんどは認識の問題になります ここでもう1つ質問 プラシーボの一体何が悪いのか? 開発費用も少なく 良く思えます 効果はバツグンです 例え副作用があったとしても 気のせいなので安心して無視できます (笑)

これを タイラー・コーエンの ブログ「限界革命」で議論しました ある人はなんとこの考えを更に発展させ プラシーボ教育を提案していました 何かを教わる事より 良い教育を受けていると感じる事が 効果を生むというのです つまり根拠のない自信に基づく うぬぼれに近い感覚が 後に大きな成功を収める事に繋がる というわけでオックスフォードへようこそ (笑) (拍手)

でもプラシーボ教育の論点は興味深いものです 感じ方に手を加えるだけで 人生のどれほどの問題が解決できるか? 退屈で手間も面倒もかかる 現実を変える作業よりずっといい 歴史に好例があります ある王が考えたもので 調べたところ それは プロイセンのフリードリヒ大帝でした 彼は ドイツの民衆に ジャガイモを大いに推奨していました 小麦とジャガイモの 2つの炭水化物源があれば パンの価格変動が減少すると気づいたからです 飢餓のリスクも減少します 2つの穀物に頼れますから

唯一の問題はジャガイモが まずそうだという事です 18世紀 プロイセン人は滅多に野菜を食べませんでした 現在のスコットランド人と一緒です (笑) 大帝はジャガイモを強要しようとしました プロイセンの農民たちは 「こんなもの犬も食わない マズいし何の役にも立たない」 ジャガイモ栽培を拒否して 処刑された農民もいたようです

大帝の次の案は ジャガイモを王室の野菜とし 王族しか食べられないという位置づけをすることでした ジャガイモを王家の畑で育て 見張り番は 昼夜を問わず 畑を守り しかし 見張りすぎぬよう命じられました (笑) 18世紀の農民たちにとって 間違いないルールと言えば 「見張るのは盗む価値がある証拠」で すぐにドイツで大規模な ジャガイモの闇栽培が始まります 大帝はジャガイモのブランド再生をしたのです まさに最高傑作でした

この話をすると あるトルコ人男性が 「素晴らしいマーケティングですが アタチュルクには及びませんね」と言いました 二コラ・サルコジのように アタチュルクは ベールの着用を禁止し トルコを近代化させようとしました 芸がない人なら単にベールを禁止したところですが それでは非常に多くの反発に遭い 大変な抵抗があったでしょう 発想が自由なアタチュルクは 売春婦にベールの着用を義務付けたのです (笑) (拍手)

これが本当かはさておき― 環境問題もこれで解決です 子どもへの性的虐待者は ポルシェに乗らねばならない (笑) アタチュルクは2つの根本的なことに気がつきました 第一に 全ての価値は相対的であり 知覚による価値であること

この看板の下はスペイン語表示です ドル表示は実際ペソですが ブエノスアイレスの賢い露天商たちは 英米人観光客に不利な 価格差別をする事にしました 広告マンとして称賛します

この話が示すのは 全ての価値は主観的だという事です 二点目は 義務付けより説得が効果的であること 点滅式の速度表示器でも 右下のような新しいタイプは 笑顔としかめ面で 感情に訴えかけます この表示器の素晴らしい点は 維持費が速度違反カメラより10%安いのに 事故を2倍防止できることです 従来の古典派経済学者を 困惑させるおかしな話は この変な笑顔の表示が 皆さんの行動を変えるのに 60ポンドの罰金と3点の罰則より効果がある事なのです

行動経済学の話を少し― イタリアでは罰則は 減点方式で 12点から引かれていきます 損失回避の方が人の言動に 強い影響を与えるからです イギリスでは「また3点もらっちゃった」が イタリアではそうはいかない

無形価値が時価や物的価値の代わりになる 素晴らしい例をもう1つ― これは環境保護の目指すところです これもプロイセンの話で1812か13年頃 フランスとの戦争を支援するために 裕福な者は宝飾品を献上し 代わりに鋳鉄製の複製品が 渡されました この例では「金を捧げ 鉄を授かった」と彫られています 興味深い事に その後50年間 プロイセンで地位を誇示できるのは 金やダイヤではなく 鋳鉄製の宝飾品でした 金の宝飾品を所有する 本質的な価値より これらには 象徴的 ブランド価値があり 家族が過去に大きな犠牲を払った証拠なのです

現代ではこんな感じです (笑) しかし 高価でレアであるほど 価値が上がる効果があるものもあれば その逆に 至る所にあり 階級がなく 最小主義である事に 価値がある場合もあります

よく考えると シェイカー教は環境保護の原型でした アダム・スミスによれば 18世紀の米国では 富の誇示が厳しく禁じられていたため ニューイングランドの 経済を妨げかねなかったといいます 裕福な農民でも隣人の不満を招かない お金の使い道がなかったからです 社会的圧力を生み出し もっと平等主義な社会にするのは全く可能です

もう1つ興味深いのは メッセージ価値とも言える 無形価値を 本質的価値よりも持つ製品は多くの場合 かなり平等主義的であるという事です 象徴価値が物質価値に取って代わる良い例は 衣服で言うと おそらくデニムでしょう 皆さんの多くは左翼的で コカコーラ社を好きではないかもしれません しかしアンディ・ウォーホールの コメントは念頭に置くべきです 「アメリカ大統領もホームレスでも 飲むコーラは同じというのがいいんだ」 当たり前と思うでしょうが これほど民主的なものを 作ったのは素晴らしい功績です

ですから少し観点を変える必要があります 本物の価値は製造 労働 工学を伴い 有限の素材を使う事だという 基本的な考えがあり 付加価値等は見せかけでごまかしだと言います 疑うのももっともです 明らかに宣伝に見えますから しかし現在はメディアも多様化し 付加価値を付けるのも容易になり もっと公平になりました

私の子ども時代のメディア環境を 食べ物で表現してみました 左側は独占販売者で メディア王ルパート・マードックかBBCだけ (笑) 右側は与えられたもの何にでも感謝する メディア会社に頼る大衆です (笑)

現在は利用者も参加しており デジタル世界では「ユーザー作成型コンテンツ」 食の世界では「農業」と呼ばれます (笑) これは「マッシュアップ」と呼ばれます 誰かのコンテンツで 新たな事を行います 食の世界では「調理」です これは「フード2.0」 他人と シェアするための食べ物です イギリス人が得意の「モバイルフード」 フィッシュ&チップス包み ミートパイ サンドイッチ 私たちイギリス人が発明したものです イタリアンはもっとおいしいけれど 携帯はできないでしょう (笑)

ところでサンドイッチ伯爵が発明したのは 実はトーストサンドイッチだそうだから トースト伯爵ですね(笑)

状況に適した情報提供もあります ペルノを例に挙げます どの国にもその土地特有の飲料があり フランスはペルノです 国内で飲むとおいしいんですが 他で飲むと全くマズイんです (笑) ハンガリーのウニクムもそうです ギリシャ人はレツィーナを作りましたが これはギリシャで飲んでもダメです (笑)

でも現在の情報はカスタマイズされ 役に立つ情報を提供し 人に影響を与えることができます スタンフォード大のB.J.フォッグ 携帯電話を 「説得技術」と呼び 現在地や状況を踏まえ タイムリーな情報を 即時に提供するのは 史上最高の説得テクノロジーだと言います

このようなツールが自由に使えるなら 著名な技術者たちのように もっと賢明な使い方を考えなくてはなりません 例を1つ挙げます 家の壁に大きな赤いボタンがあり 押すたびに50ドルが 年金に入ったら もっとお金を貯められますよね 簡単にできるかが 基本的に行動を決定するわけです

広告は衝動買いの機会を作るのに 非常に貢献してきました でも衝動貯金する機会は作られた事がありません あれば 多くの人がもっと貯金できるでしょう 人が決定を下すプロセスを 変えるだけで 選択肢そのものも変わるでしょう 広告マンとしては 貯金してほしくないですが 消費を不必要に延期してるだけなので (笑) でももし そうしたいのであれば 人間の行動を変える基本的な 手段が必要ということです

さて ここでカナダの例をあげます 広告会社オグルヴィ・カナダのインターン ハンター・サマービルは トロントでコメディをしていましたが パートで広告の仕事に就き シリアルの宣伝を担当することになりました これは製品を一切変えずに 無形価値を創る 史上最高の実例です シュレディーズは奇妙な四角い全粒粉シリアルで ニュージーランドやカナダ イギリス つまり イギリス帝国に忠実な国でしか買えない (笑) シュレディーズのリニューアルにあたり 彼はこれを思いつきました

ビデオ:(ブザー音) 男:シュレディーズは四角いはずなのに (笑)

このダイヤ型は出荷されてないでしょうね (笑)

新ダイヤ型シュレディーズ 同じ全粒粉100%の美味しいダイヤ型 (拍手)

これは無形価値創造の 完璧な例でしょう 知覚に必要な 光子と脳細胞といいアイデアさえあればいいのです まさに傑作と言えます もちろん多少の市場調査は必要です

男:シュレディーズは新製品を開発中で 社員一同張り切っています 新ダイヤ型シュレディーズです (笑) まず ダイヤ型が入った箱を 見た第一印象を教えて下さい (笑)

女:前は四角じゃなかった?

2:どういうこと? 女3:四角に見えるけど

男:見方の問題です 6と9をひっくり返すようなものです ひっくり返せば9に見えますが 6は9とは大分違う

女3:MとWみたいに 男:その通り

男2:向きを変えただけみたいだけど この角度から見たら もっとおもしろい形だね

男:両方試食してください まず四角の方を (笑) 男:どちらがいいですか? 男2:1つ目

最初の方ですか? (笑)

こうなるともちろん議論が起こります 当然ながら カナダの保守派は この商品の「侵入」を拒否しました 結果 メーカーは妥協案の 「コンボ・パック」にたどり着きました (笑) (拍手) (笑)

これが面白いというなら 全米ワイン経済研究所の話もあります 知覚について広く研究しており 人口の5?10%の ワイン通以外 ワインの品質と美味しく感じることに 相互関係はないと発見しました 値段を教えた場合は例外です 人は高価なワインを好む傾向にあります ですからこれからは銘柄を隠して飲みましょう

これには笑ってしまいますが 大事な理性的観点でもあります 今後このような価値の必要性が増すということです 既存のものをもっと高く評価することに専念し 他に何ができるか悩まないことです

2つの引用を述べて終わります 1つ目は「詩とは 新しいものを身近にし 身近なものを新しくすることだ」で 私達のこれからの仕事のいい定義です なじみのないものを人々に紹介し すでに存在するものの価値を高めて 良さを認めてもらうのです ソーシャルネットワーキングも役立ちます 人々がニュースを共有できるからです 日常の些細な活動に価値を与えるため 大金をかけて 誇示する必要がなくなり 日常の小さなシンプルなことで 周りの人を 楽しませる事ができる まさにマジックです

2つ目はG.K.チェスタトンの名言で 「感嘆することが足りないのでなく 感嘆できないのだ」です 技術に関与している人は納得するでしょう 最後に一言: 健康や愛や セックスなどを重視し 見えなくて無形だからと言うだけで 今まで考慮しなかったものに 物的価値を与えるようになれば 想像つかないほど恵まれていると気づくでしょう ありがとうございました (拍手)

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