TED日本語 - アパルナ・ラオ: ハイテク・アート(ユーモアを込めて)

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TED日本語 - アパルナ・ラオ: ハイテク・アート(ユーモアを込めて)

TED Talks

ハイテク・アート(ユーモアを込めて)
High-tech art (with a sense of humor)
アパルナ・ラオ
Aparna Rao

内容

芸術家でTEDフェローでもあるアパルナ・ラオは身近なものを驚くほどユーモアに富む方法で描き直します。同僚のソーレン・ポーズと共にハイテク・アートを創ります。それらの作品は通常の物体・通常の関係に面白さを与えてくれます。(メールを送信してくれるタイプライター、部屋内で監視・追跡している人を映像上では透明人間にしてしまうビデオカメラなど)

Script

Hi. Today, I'm going to take you through glimpses of about eight of my projects, done in collaboration with Danish artist Soren Pors. We call ourselves Pors & Rao, and we live and work in India.

I'd like to begin with my very first object, which I call "The Uncle Phone." And it was inspired by my uncle's peculiar habit of constantly asking me to do things for him, almost like I were an extension of his body -- to turn on the lights or to bring him a glass of water, a pack of cigarettes. And as I grew up, it became worse and worse, And I started to think of it as a form of control. But of course, I could never say anything, because the uncle is a respected figure in the Indian family. And the situation that irked me and mystified me the most was his use of a landline telephone. He would hold on to the receiver and expect me to dial a number for him. And so as a response and as a gift to my uncle, I made him "The Uncle Phone." It's so long that it requires two people to use it. It's exactly the way my uncle uses a phone that's designed for one person.

But the problem is that, when I left home and went to college, I started missing his commands. And so I made him a golden typewriter through which he could dispense his commands to nephews and nieces around the world as an email. So what he had to do was take a piece of paper, roll it into the carriage, type his email or command and pull the paper out. This device would automatically send the intended person the letter as an email. So here you can see, we embedded a lot of electronics that understands all of the mechanical actions and converts it to digital. So my uncle is only dealing with a mechanical interface. And of course, the object had to be very grand and have a sense of ritualism, the way my uncle likes it.

The next work is a sound-sensitive installation that we affectionately call "The Pygmies." And we wanted to work with a notion of being surrounded by a tribe of very shy, sensitive and sweet creatures. So how it works is we have these panels, which we have on the wall, and behind them, we have these little creatures which hide. And as soon as it's silent, they sort of creep out. And if it's even more silent, they stretch their necks out. And at the slightest sound, they hide back again.

So we had these panels on three walls of a room. And we had over 500 of these little pygmies hiding behind them. So this is how it works. This is a video prototype. So when it's quiet, it's sort of coming out from behind the panels. And they hear like humans do, or real creatures do. So they get immune to sounds that scare them after awhile. And they don't react to background sounds. You'll hear a train in moment that they don't react to. (Noise) But they react to foreground sounds. You'll hear that in a second. (Whistling) So we worked very hard to make them as lifelike as possible. So each pygmy has its own behavior, psyche, mood swings, personalities and so on. So this is a very early prototype. Of course, it got much better after that. And we made them react to people, but we found that people were being quite playful and childlike with them.

This is a video installation called "The Missing Person." And we were quite intrigued with playing with the notion of invisibility. How would it be possible to experience a sense of invisibility? So we worked with a company that specializes in camera surveillance, and we asked them to develop a piece of software with us, using a camera that could look at people in the room, track them and replace one person with the background, rendering them invisible.

So I'm just going to show you a very early prototype. On the right side you can see my colleague Soren, who's actually in the space. And on the left side, you'll see the processed video where the camera has made him invisible. Soren enters the room. Pop! He goes invisible. And you can see that the camera is tracking him and erasing. It's a very early video, so we haven't yet dealt with the overlap and all of that, but that got refined pretty soon, later. So how we used it was in a room where we had a camera looking into the space, and we had one monitor,one on each wall. And as people walked into the room, they would see themselves in the monitor, except with one difference: one person was constantly invisible wherever they moved in the room.

So this is a work called "The Sun Shadow." And it was almost like a sheet of paper, like a cutout of a childlike drawing of an oil spill or a sun. And from the front, this object appeared to be very strong and robust, and from the side, it almost seemed very weak. So people would walking into the room and they'd almost ignore it, thinking it was some crap laying around. But as soon as they passed by, it would start to climb up the wall in jerky fashion. And it would get exhausted, and it would collapse every time.

(Laughter)

So this work is a caricature of an upside-down man. His head is so heavy, full of heavy thoughts, that it's sort of fallen into his hat, and his body's grown out of him almost like a plant. Well what he does is he moves around in a very drunken fashion on his head in a very unpredictable and extremely slow movement. And it's kind of constrained by that circle. Because if that circle weren't there, and the floor was very even, it would start to wander about in the space. And there's no wires. So I'll just show you an instance -- so when people enter the room, it activates this object. And it very slowly, over a few minutes, sort of painfully goes up, and then it gains momentum and it looks like it's almost about to fall. And this is an important moment, because we wanted to instill in the viewer an instinct to almost go and help, or save the subject. But it doesn't really need it, because it, again, sort of manages to pull itself up.

So this work was a real technical challenge for us, and we worked very hard, like most of our works, over years to get the mechanics right and the equilibrium and the dynamics. And it was very important for us to establish the exact moment that it would fall, because if we made it in a way that it would topple over, then it would damage itself, and if it didn't fall enough, it wouldn't instill that fatalism, or that sense of wanting to go and help it. So I'm going to show you a very quick video where we are doing a test scenario -- it's much faster. That's my colleague. He's let it go. Now he's getting nervous, so he's going to go catch it. But he doesn't need to, because it manages to lift itself up on its own.

So this is a work that we were very intrigued with, working with the aesthetic of fur embedded with thousands of tiny different sizes of fiber optics, which twinkle like the night sky. And it's at the scale of the night sky. So we wrapped this around a blob-like form, which is in the shape of a teddy bear, which was hanging from the ceiling. And the idea was to sort of contrast something very cold and distant and abstract like the universe into the familiar form of a teddy bear, which is very comforting and intimate. And the idea was that at some point you would stop looking at the form of a teddy bear and you would almost perceive it to be a hole in the space, and as if you were looking out into the twinkling night sky.

So this is the last work, and a work in progress, and it's called "Space Filler." Well imagine a small cube that's about this big standing in front of you in the middle of the room, and as you approached it, it tried to intimidate you by growing into a cube that's twice its height and [ eight ] times its volume. And so this object is constantly expanding and contracting to create a dynamic with people moving around it -- almost like it were trying to conceal a secret within its seams or something.

So we work with a lot of technology, but we don't really love technology, because it gives us a lot of pain in our work over years and years. But we use it because we're interested in the way that it can help us to express the emotions and behavioral patterns in these creatures that we create. And once a creature pops into our minds, it's almost like the process of creation is to discover the way this creature really wants to exist and what form it wants to take and what way it wants to move.

Thank you.

(Applause)

今日はデンマークの芸術家 ソーレン・ポーズと共同で取り組んだ 8つのプロジェクトを簡単に紹介します 私たちはポーズ&ラオと自称し インドに拠点を置いています

最初の作品を紹介したいと思います 「叔父電話」です 私の叔父の妙な習慣に触発されてこれを作りました 彼は常に頼みごとをしてきます 私は彼の手足のように使われます 水やタバコを取らせられたり 電気をつけさせられます 私の成長と共にそれは酷くなり 支配的だと思うようになりました 何も言えませんけどね 私の家庭で叔父というのは 尊敬されるべき存在だからです 最も腹立たしく理解に苦しんだことは 叔父の固定電話の使い方です 受話器は彼が握り 電話は私にかけさせるのです お礼に叔父への贈り物として この「叔父電話」を作りました とても長いので使用するには二人必要となります これは私の叔父が通常の固定電話を使う方法と全く同じです

しかし問題があり 私が家を離れて大学に通うと 彼の指令が恋しくなりました だから金のタイプライターを作り これを使って彼はメールで 各国の甥や姪に指令を送れるようにしました 叔父は紙を取ってキャリッジに入れ メールに 指令をタイプして紙を引き出せばいいのです このタイプライターは意図された人に自動で メールとしての手紙を送ります ご覧の通り たくさんの電子部品が埋め込まれており それが機械的作用を把握して デジタル情報に変換するのです つまり叔父は機械インターフェースを使っているだけです 彼の好みに合わせて 作品は立派で儀式的感覚を もたせる必要がありました

次の作品は音に反応するものです 愛情を込めて「ピグミー」と呼んでいます この作品のイメージ作りで 「シャイで敏感で可愛らしいピグミー族に囲まれること」を大事にしました 作品の仕組みを紹介します 壁にパネルが付いていて パネルの後ろに小人たちが隠れています 静かになると小人たちがこっそりと顔を出す感じです さらに静かになると首が伸びます 少しの音でも出ると彼らはまた隠れてしまいます

私たちはパネルを部屋の3つの壁に設置しました パネル裏には500人以上のピグミーが隠れています こんな仕組みになっています これは試作品の映像です 静かになるとパネル裏から何か出てきます 人間が聞くように音を捉えるのです 時間が経てば音に対する免疫もできるので BGMには反応しません もうすぐ電車の音が聞こえますが反応しません (電車の音) しかし間もなく前方から聞こえる音には反応します (笛の音) 私たちはパネルを可能な限り 生き物らしくしようと取り組みました だからピグミーには習慣・精神・ 気分の変化・人格などがあります これは黎明期の試作品です 当然 この後にかなり改良しました 人間に反応させるよう改良すると 人々はこれを目にして子供のように楽しむことが分かりました

次の作品は「透明人間」です 不可視の感覚で遊ぶことに 私たちは興味がありました どうすれば透明人間の感覚を経験できるのか? 私たちは監視カメラの会社と 共同でプロジェクトを進め あるソフトウェアの共同制作をお願いしました カメラを使ったソフトで 部屋にいる人たちを追いかけ その内の一人を背景に変えて「透明人間」にします

では黎明期の試作品をお見せします 右側には同僚・ソーレンが見えます 実際 その場所にいたのです 左側は映像処理されたもので ソーレンを「透明人間」にしています ソーレンは部屋に入りますが ポンっと消えます ご覧の通り カメラが彼を追跡して消しています 試作当時のものなので 重複部などはまだ未完成でしたが すぐ後にこの問題は解決されました 仕組みを紹介します 部屋内に監視カメラ 両側の壁にモニターが設置してあります そして人々が部屋に入ると モニターで自身の姿を見れますが 1つ違うのは 特定の一人は部屋中を動き回ろうと 常に「透明人間」なのです

次の作品は「日影」です これはまるで子供が描いた太陽や油絵を 切り抜いただけの 1枚の紙切れのようなものです 正面から見ると非常に強く・たくましく見えます しかし横から見るととても弱そうです だから部屋に入ってくる人は全然気にかけません 壁の汚れだと思っているのです しかし人が横切ると これは壁を奇妙によじ登ります 疲れたら落ちる仕組みになっています

(笑)

次の作品は 逆さま人間のパロディです 考え事でいっぱいの頭が重いので まるで帽子に飲み込まれてしまい 体が植物みたいに生えています これは酔っ払いのように 動き回ります その動きは予測できず 速度もとても遅いです 今は外円によって制御されている感じです もし外円がなく 床も平坦ならば それは部屋中を動き回ります ワイヤーは着いていません これの一例をお見せします 人が部屋に入ると作動します 数分間とても遅い速度で 下半身が痛々しく上がってきます そして勢いづき まるで倒れる寸前のようです これは重要な瞬間です なぜなら見物人に助けようと 思わせたかったからです しかし実際 助けは要りません 先ほど述べたように 自身で立ち上がれるのです

さて この作品は技術的に困難なものでした 正しい構造・均衡・力学を得るために 私たちは何年も熱心に取り組みました 倒れる寸前の状態を作るのは 私たちにとって非常に重要でした なぜならそれが転落してしまうと 自身を傷つけてしまい また 十分に傾かないと人々に「運命論」あるいは 助けに行く気を与えられないからです では短い映像をお見せします シナリオテストをしています 同僚が逆さま人間を放します 彼は心配になって助けにいきます しかしその必要はありません 自身で起き上がれるからです

次の作品は私たちがとても興味をそそられたものです 毛皮の美学を扱ったもので そこには何千もの極小の光ファイバーが 埋め込まれていて夜空の星みたいに光ります これは夜空の景色なのです おぼろけなものを包んで テディベアの形をしており 天井から吊るされています このアイデアでは宇宙のように とても冷たく距離もあり抽象的なものと 明るく親しいテディベアとを 対比させようとしています これをしばらく眺めていると テディベアの形を意識しなくなり まるで空間に開いた穴のように見えてきます まるで夜空に輝く星を眺めている感じです

これは最後の作品で現在進行中です 名前は「スペースフィラー」です これくらい小さなキューブが 部屋の中心にあると思って下さい そしてあなたが近づくと脅かしてきます というのも 高さ2倍・体積4倍に成長するのです それは伸縮を繰り返し 周りを動き回る人との 関係を生み出します まるで継ぎ目の中の秘密を 隠そうとしているみたいです

さて私たちは多くの技術を使っていますが 技術が好きなわけではありません なぜなら何年も何年も掛かって面倒だからです それでも使う理由は それによって私たちの作る「生き物」に 感情や習慣的パターンを表現させることが できるからです ひとたび「生き物」が頭に浮かぶと まるで創造プロセスのようで それの存在意義や姿・形 そして相応しい動きを 発掘することになります

ありがとうございました

(拍手)

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