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TED日本語 - マルコム・グラッドウェル: 知られざるダビデとゴリアテの物語

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The unheard story of David and Goliath


Malcolm Gladwell






So I wanted to tell a story that really obsessed me when I was writing my new book, and it's a story of something that happened 3,000 years ago, when the Kingdom of Israel was in its infancy. And it takes place in an area called the Shephelah in what is now Israel. And the reason the story obsessed me is that I thought I understood it, and then I went back over it and I realized that I didn't understand it at all.

Ancient Palestine had a -- along its eastern border, there's a mountain range. Still same is true of Israel today. And in the mountain range are all of the ancient cities of that region, so Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Hebron. And then there's a coastal plain along the Mediterranean, where Tel Aviv is now. And connecting the mountain range with the coastal plain is an area called the Shephelah, which is a series of valleys and ridges that run east to west, and you can follow the Shephelah, go through the Shephelah to get from the coastal plain to the mountains. And the Shephelah, if you've been to Israel, you'll know it's just about the most beautiful part of Israel. It's gorgeous, with forests of oak and wheat fields and vineyards.

But more importantly, though, in the history of that region, it's served, it's had a real strategic function, and that is, it is the means by which hostile armies on the coastal plain find their way, get up into the mountains and threaten those living in the mountains. And 3,000 years ago, that's exactly what happens. The Philistines, who are the biggest of enemies of the Kingdom of Israel, are living in the coastal plain. They're originally from Crete. They're a seafaring people. And they may start to make their way through one of the valleys of the Shephelah up into the mountains, because what they want to do is occupy the highland area right by Bethlehem and split the Kingdom of Israel in two. And the Kingdom of Israel, which is headed by King Saul, obviously catches wind of this, and Saul brings his army down from the mountains and he confronts the Philistines in the Valley of Elah,one of the most beautiful of the valleys of the Shephelah. And the Israelites dig in along the northern ridge, and the Philistines dig in along the southern ridge, and the two armies just sit there for weeks and stare at each other, because they're deadlocked. Neither can attack the other, because to attack the other side you've got to come down the mountain into the valley and then up the other side, and you're completely exposed.

So finally, to break the deadlock, the Philistines send their mightiest warrior down into the valley floor, and he calls out and he says to the Israelites, "Send your mightiest warrior down, and we'll have this out, just the two of us."

This was a tradition in ancient warfare called single combat. It was a way of settling disputes without incurring the bloodshed of a major battle. And the Philistine who is sent down, their mighty warrior, is a giant. He's 6 foot 9. He's outfitted head to toe in this glittering bronze armor, and he's got a sword and he's got a javelin and he's got his spear. He is absolutely terrifying. And he's so terrifying that none of the Israelite soldiers want to fight him. It's a death wish, right? There's no way they think they can take him.

And finally the only person who will come forward is this young shepherd boy, and he goes up to Saul and he says, "I'll fight him."

And Saul says, "You can't fight him. That's ridiculous. You're this kid. This is this mighty warrior."

But the shepherd is adamant. He says, "No, no, no, you don't understand, I have been defending my flock against lions and wolves for years. I think I can do it."

And Saul has no choice. He's got no one else who's come forward. So he says, "All right." And then he turns to the kid, and he says, "But you've got to wear this armor. You can't go as you are."

So he tries to give the shepherd his armor, and the shepherd says, "No." He says, "I can't wear this stuff." The Biblical verse is, "I can not wear this for I have not proved it," meaning, "I've never worn armor before. You've got to be crazy."

So he reaches down instead on the ground and picks up five stones and puts them in his shepherd's bag and starts to walk down the mountainside to meet the giant. And the giant sees this figure approaching, and calls out, "Come to me so I can feed your flesh to the birds of the heavens and the beasts of the field." He issues this kind of taunt towards this person coming to fight him. And the shepherd draws closer and closer, and the giant sees that he's carrying a staff. That's all he's carrying. Instead of a weapon, just this shepherd's staff, and he says -- he's insulted -- "Am I a dog that you would come to me with sticks?"

And the shepherd boy takes one of his stones out of his pocket, puts it in his sling and rolls it around and lets it fly and it hits the giant right between the eyes -- right here, in his most vulnerable spot -- and he falls down either dead or unconscious, and the shepherd boy runs up and takes his sword and cuts off his head, and the Philistines see this and they turn and they just run.

And of course, the name of the giant is Goliath and the name of the shepherd boy is David, and the reason that story has obsessed me over the course of writing my book is that everything I thought I knew about that story turned out to be wrong.

So David, in that story, is supposed to be the underdog, right? In fact, that term, David and Goliath, has entered our language as a metaphor for improbable victories by some weak party over someone far stronger. Now why do we call David an underdog? Well, we call him an underdog because he's a kid, a little kid, and Goliath is this big, strong giant. We also call him an underdog because Goliath is an experienced warrior, and David is just a shepherd. But most importantly, we call him an underdog because all he has is -- it's that Goliath is outfitted with all of this modern weaponry, this glittering coat of armor and a sword and a javelin and a spear, and all David has is this sling.

Well, let's start there with the phrase "All David has is this sling," because that's the first mistake that we make. In ancient warfare, there are three kinds of warriors. There's cavalry, men on horseback and with chariots. There's heavy infantry, which are foot soldiers, armed foot soldiers with swords and shields and some kind of armor. And there's artillery, and artillery are archers, but, more importantly, slingers. And a slinger is someone who has a leather pouch with two long cords attached to it, and they put a projectile, either a rock or a lead ball, inside the pouch, and they whirl it around like this and they let one of the cords go, and the effect is to send the projectile forward towards its target. That's what David has, and it's important to understand that that sling is not a slingshot. It's not this, right? It's not a child's toy. It's in fact an incredibly devastating weapon. When David rolls it around like this, he's turning the sling around probably at six or seven revolutions per second, and that means that when the rock is released, it's going forward really fast, probably 35 meters per second. That's substantially faster than a baseball thrown by even the finest of baseball pitchers. More than that, the stones in the Valley of Elah were not normal rocks. They were barium sulphate, which are rocks twice the density of normal stones. If you do the calculations on the ballistics, on the stopping power of the rock fired from David's sling, it's roughly equal to the stopping power of a [ .45 caliber ] handgun. This is an incredibly devastating weapon. Accuracy, we know from historical records that slingers -- experienced slingers could hit and maim or even kill a target at distances of up to 200 yards. From medieval tapestries, we know that slingers were capable of hitting birds in flight. They were incredibly accurate. When David lines up -- and he's not 200 yards away from Goliath, he's quite close to Goliath -- when he lines up and fires that thing at Goliath, he has every intention and every expectation of being able to hit Goliath at his most vulnerable spot between his eyes. If you go back over the history of ancient warfare, you will find time and time again that slingers were the decisive factor against infantry in one kind of battle or another.

So what's Goliath? He's heavy infantry, and his expectation when he challenges the Israelites to a duel is that he's going to be fighting another heavy infantryman. When he says, "Come to me that I might feed your flesh to the birds of the heavens and the beasts of the field," the key phrase is "Come to me." Come up to me because we're going to fight, hand to hand, like this. Saul has the same expectation. David says, "I want to fight Goliath," and Saul tries to give him his armor, because Saul is thinking, "Oh, when you say 'fight Goliath,' you mean 'fight him in hand-to-hand combat,' infantry on infantry."

But David has absolutely no expectation. He's not going to fight him that way. Why would he? He's a shepherd. He's spent his entire career using a sling to defend his flock against lions and wolves. That's where his strength lies. So here he is, this shepherd, experienced in the use of a devastating weapon, up against this lumbering giant weighed down by a hundred pounds of armor and these incredibly heavy weapons that are useful only in short-range combat. Goliath is a sitting duck. He doesn't have a chance. So why do we keep calling David an underdog, and why do we keep referring to his victory as improbable?

There's a second piece of this that's important. It's not just that we misunderstand David and his choice of weaponry. It's also that we profoundly misunderstand Goliath. Goliath is not what he seems to be. There's all kinds of hints of this in the Biblical text, things that are in retrospect quite puzzling and don't square with his image as this mighty warrior. So to begin with, the Bible says that Goliath is led onto the valley floor by an attendant. Now that is weird, right? Here is this mighty warrior challenging the Israelites to one-on-one combat. Why is he being led by the hand by some young boy, presumably, to the point of combat? Secondly, the Bible story makes special note of how slowly Goliath moves, another odd thing to say when you're describing the mightiest warrior known to man at that point. And then there's this whole weird thing about how long it takes Goliath to react to the sight of David. So David's coming down the mountain, and he's clearly not preparing for hand-to-hand combat. There is nothing about him that says, "I am about to fight you like this." He's not even carrying a sword. Why does Goliath not react to that? It's as if he's oblivious to what's going on that day. And then there's that strange comment he makes to David: "Am I a dog that you should come to me with sticks?" Sticks? David only has one stick.

Well, it turns out that there's been a great deal of speculation within the medical community over the years about whether there is something fundamentally wrong with Goliath, an attempt to make sense of all of those apparent anomalies. There have been many articles written. The first one was in 1960 in the Indiana Medical Journal, and it started a chain of speculation that starts with an explanation for Goliath's height. So Goliath is head and shoulders above all of his peers in that era, and usually when someone is that far out of the norm, there's an explanation for it. So the most common form of giantism is a condition called acromegaly, and acromegaly is caused by a benign tumor on your pituitary gland that causes an overproduction of human growth hormone. And throughout history, many of the most famous giants have all had acromegaly. So the tallest person of all time was a guy named Robert Wadlow who was still growing when he died at the age of 24 and he was 8 foot 11. He had acromegaly. Do you remember the wrestler Andre the Giant? Famous. He had acromegaly. There's even speculation that Abraham Lincoln had acromegaly. Anyone who's unusually tall, that's the first explanation we come up with. And acromegaly has a very distinct set of side effects associated with it, principally having to do with vision. The pituitary tumor, as it grows, often starts to compress the visual nerves in your brain, with the result that people with acromegaly have either double vision or they are profoundly nearsighted.

So when people have started to speculate about what might have been wrong with Goliath, they've said, "Wait a minute, he looks and sounds an awful lot like someone who has acromegaly." And that would also explain so much of what was strange about his behavior that day. Why does he move so slowly and have to be escorted down into the valley floor by an attendant? Because he can't make his way on his own. Why is he so strangely oblivious to David that he doesn't understand that David's not going to fight him until the very last moment? Because he can't see him. When he says, "Come to me that I might feed your flesh to the birds of the heavens and the beasts of the field," the phrase "come to me" is a hint also of his vulnerability. Come to me because I can't see you. And then there's, "Am I a dog that you should come to me with sticks?" He sees two sticks when David has only one.

So the Israelites up on the mountain ridge looking down on him thought he was this extraordinarily powerful foe. What they didn't understand was that the very thing that was the source of his apparent strength was also the source of his greatest weakness.

And there is, I think, in that, a very important lesson for all of us. Giants are not as strong and powerful as they seem. And sometimes the shepherd boy has a sling in his pocket.

Thank you.


本日 お話したいのは 新作を執筆中に頭を悩ませていた問題です それは3,000年前の 出来事です イスラエル王国が誕生したばかりの頃で シェフェラという場所で起きました 今のイスラエルにあります なぜ 悩んでいたのかというと 知っているつもりのことを実は - 全く理解していなかったと気付いたからです

古代パレスティナの東側の国境に沿って 山脈がありました 今日のイスラエルと同じです そしてこの地域の主要な古代都市 - エルサレム ベツレヘム ヘブロンはみなこの山脈にありました そして地中海に面した海岸平野に 現在のテルアビブがありますが この山脈と海岸平野の間の地域が シェフェラと呼ばれていました 尾根と谷が東西に走り シェフェラを通って 海岸平野から山脈に出られます イスラエルに行ったことのある方なら そこが最も美しい場所だとご存知でしょう きれいですよオークの森があり 麦畑にブドウ園

しかしそれ以上にこの地域は歴史的に 戦略上重要な拠点でした つまり 敵愾心に満ちた軍隊が 海岸平野からこの地を通って 山脈に入り込めばイスラエルの民には脅威でした 3,000年前にまさにこれが起こりました イスラエル王国の最大の敵は ペリシテ人で 海岸平野に住んでいました クレタ島を故郷とする航海に長けた民族です 彼らが進軍を始め シェフェラの谷を通って 山脈に向かいました 高地をその手に収め ベツレヘムのところで王国を二分するつもりだったのです サウル王率いるイスラエル王国は この動向を読み取り 王は自軍を率いて山を下り エラの谷でペリシテ軍と対峙しました シェフェラにある谷の中でも最も美しい場所の一つです イスラエル軍は北峰に陣取り ペリシテ軍は南峰に沿って陣を敷きました そして何週間もにらみ合っていました 膠着状態になってしまったのです 双方とも攻撃もままなりません 攻撃するには山を下り 谷を越えて 相手側に登らなくてはならず敵に身をさらす事になります

この状況を打開するため ペリシテ側は最強の兵士を 谷底へ送り込みました その兵士が呼びかけます 「最強の兵を下ってこさせよ 二人で決着を付けようではないか」

これは古代の戦場の習わしである一騎打ちで - 血みどろの決戦無しに 争いを治める方法でした ペリシテ人が送り込んだのは 屈強の巨人で 2m以上あり 青銅の鎧で全身を固め 剣と大小の投槍を持ち 見るも恐ろしい様でした 恐怖のあまりイスラエル側で これに応じる者はいませんでした 自殺しにいくようなものです勝ち目はありません

しかし とうとう進み出た者がいました 若い羊飼いの少年です サウル王に申し出ました「あのペリシテ人と戦いましょう」

王は「勝負にはなるまい お前は年若く 相手は熟練の兵だ」と答えました

しかし 羊飼いは譲りません 「私は羊たちを 何年も 獅子やオオカミから守ってきたのです」

王に選択の余地はありません他に誰も名乗り出ないのです 「では行くがよい」 そして少年に向かって 「そのままではならぬこのいくさ衣を着なさい」と

自分の甲冑を与えようとしましたが 羊飼いは断りました 「このような物は身に着けられません」 聖書には「験せしことなければ是を着ては 往くあたはず」とあります つまり 「鎧を着たことがないのでムリ」という事ですね

その代り地面にあった 5つの石を拾い 羊飼いの肩掛け袋に入れ 巨人の元へ山を下り始めました 巨人はその姿を見て叫びました 「さあ 向かってこい 空の鳥 野の獣の餌食にしてくれよう」 向かってくる対戦相手を そんな風に愚弄したのです 羊飼いが近づいていくと 巨人に相手の武器が見えました 相手が持っていたのは 武器ではなく 羊飼いの杖だけです 侮辱を感じた巨人は言いました 「杖々を持って 向かってくるが私は犬なのか」

すると少年は袋から一つの石を取り 石投げに入れると 振り回して放ちました 石は巨人の眉間を打ち まさにここ 弱点を突きました 死んだのか失神したのかともかく地に倒れたので 少年は駆け寄るとその剣を取り 首をはねました それを見たペリシテ軍は一目散に逃げ出しました

もちろん 巨人の名はゴリアテで 羊飼いの少年の名はダビデです 本を書いている間この話が頭から 離れなかったのは この話についてのそれまでの自分の理解が 間違っていたとわかったからです

ダビデに勝ち目はなさそうですよね 実際 「ダビデとゴリアテ」と言えば 番狂わせの形容として 使われています 予想外の勝利ということですね なぜ ダビデに勝ち目はないと思ったのでしょうか? 子供だから 勝算はない きゃしゃな少年と屈強のゴリアテです また勝ち目がないのは ゴリアテは経験豊かな戦士で ダビデは羊飼いにすぎないから 何より注目すべきは ゴリアテが身に着けていたのが 最新鋭の武器だったこと きらめく甲冑 剣に 大小の投槍 一方 ダビデが持っていたのは石投げに過ぎません

ここから始めましょうか 「ダビデが持っていたのは石投げにすぎない」 実はこれが最初の誤解なのです 古代の戦場には3種類の兵隊がいました 騎兵 馬と二輪戦車に乗って戦います 歩兵 これは剣と盾で身を固め ある種の鎧を着た徒歩の兵隊です そして砲兵 弓の射手や - さらに重要な投石手から編成されています 投石手というのは革製のポーチを持っていて このポーチは2本の長い紐付で 弾にする石や鉛玉を このポーチに入れ こんな風に回転させて 一方の紐を放す事で 標的に向けて 投擲するんです これがダビデの武器ですそして大事なのは 石投げはパチンコとは違うことです 子供のおもちゃではありません 実は非常に強力な武器なのです ダビデが石投げを このように回している時 おそらく1秒間に6、7回転させていたと思います それで石が放たれると 非常に高速になり 恐らく秒速35mはあったと思われます 強肩のピッチャーが投げる 野球のボールよりも速いでしょう さらには エラの谷にある石は ただの石ではありません硫酸バリウムで - 普通の石の2倍の密度があります 計算してみると ダビデの石投げから放たれた石のストッピングパワーは 45口径の拳銃に 匹敵するのです ものすごく威力のある武器なんです その精度は 歴史上の記録から 経験豊かな投石手なら 200m離れた敵に 重傷を負わせ殺すことさえできたそうです 中世のタペストリーから 投石手は飛んでいる鳥を落とせる事もわかります 驚くほど正確なのです ダビデがゴリアテと対峙した時200mも離れてはいません ずっと近かった ゴリアテに向けて投擲したとき ダビデはまさに ゴリアテの弱点である眉間に 狙いを定めていたのです 歴史上の戦いを振り返ると 度々起きている事ですが 様々な局面で 投石手が歩兵を圧倒しているのです

さて ゴリアテはどうでしょう? 重装歩兵です 当然 一騎打ちの際は 重装歩兵どうしで戦うつもりでした 「向かってこい 空の鳥 野の獣の餌食にしてくれよう」の中の - 「向かってこい」というのがポイントです これから始まるのは こんな剣を交えた接近戦です サウル王も同じ考えでした ダビデが「ゴリアテと戦いたい」と言った時 王は自分の鎧を与えようとしました 「ゴリアテと戦う」というなら 当然 それは「接近戦」で 「歩兵 対 歩兵の戦い」だろうと

ところがダビデは そんなことは考えもしませんでした そんな戦い方はしませんなぜか? 羊飼いだからです一番の仕事は 羊の群れを獅子やオオカミから石投げで守ることでした それが彼の強みです この羊飼いは 使い慣れた強力な武器を手に のろまな巨人に向かったのです 50kgの鎧で動きが遅く 彼の重たい武器は 白兵戦でのみ有効です ゴリアテこそ格好の餌食で勝ち目はなかったのです それなのになぜ ダビデは勝てないと思い込んだのでしょう? 番狂わせだと言い続けるのか?

重要な要素がもう1つあります 私たちはダビデと彼の武器の選択について 誤解していただけではなく ゴリアテについても大きな誤解をしていたのです ゴリアテは見かけどおりではなかった 聖書の文章に多くのヒントが隠されています よく考えてみると腑に落ちないことがあります どうも屈強の戦士というイメージに合わないのです 聖書によればゴリアテは 従者に手引きされていたとあります おかしいでしょう? イスラエル軍に一騎打ちを求める 最強の戦士が なぜ それも恐らくは子供に 手を引かれなくてはならないのでしょう? これから戦場に向かうというのに さらに聖書にはゴリアテがいかに - 動きが遅かったか記述されています この時代の最強の戦士を表すには これもおかしな点です 最も奇妙な点は ゴリアテがダビデの姿に 反応するまでの間です ダビデは山を下りてきましたが 接近戦の装備ではありません どう見ても「直接 渡り合おう」 という様子ではないのです 剣すら持っていないのですから なぜゴリアテは反応しなかったのでしょう? 何が起きているのかわかっていないかのようです それからダビデに向かってこんな不思議な発言をします 「杖々を持って 向かってくるが私は犬なのか」 杖々?ダビデは杖を1本しか持っていません

これが医学界における大いなる 考察へとつながったのです 何か根本的におかしな点が ゴリアテにあったということ 明らかに不可思議な点を解明しようと 多くの論文が書かれました 最初は1960年のインディアナ・メディカル・ジャーナルで そこから数々の考察が派生しました まずはゴリアテの身長の謎です ゴリアテは肩から上が まわりの仲間より抜きん出ていました そこまで標準から逸脱している場合 通常説明がつくものです 巨人症で最も一般的なのは 先端巨大症と呼ばれ 下垂体にできた良性腫瘍によって 引き起こされます それにより 成長ホルモンが過剰に分泌されるのです 歴史的に見ても多くの有名な巨人たちは 先端巨大症です 史上で最も背が高いのは ロバート・ワドローという人です 24歳で亡くなったときも背が伸び続けていました 272㎝です 先端巨大症だったのです レスラーのアンドレ・ザ・ジャイアントを覚えていますか? 有名ですね先端巨大症でした エイブラハム・リンカーンもそうだったのではないかと言われています 異常に背の高い人に対して 最初に疑われるのがこの病気なのです 先端巨大症には他にも症状があります それは 主に視覚に関わるものです 下垂体の腫瘍は大きくなるにつれて 脳の視神経を圧迫する事が多いのです その結果先端巨大症の人は 物が二重に見えたり強度の近視になったりします

だから人々がゴリアテの妙な部分について 考え始めたとき気付いたのです 「待てよ まるでゴリアテは - 先端巨大症の人のようだ」 これで あの日の彼の奇妙な行動に 説明がつきます なぜ動きが鈍いのか なぜ従者に手引きされなくてはならなかったのか? 一人だと道が見えなかったからです なぜそんなにぼんやりとしていて ダビデが明らかに戦う用意のない事に 最後の瞬間まで気づかなかったのか? 見えなかったからです 「向かってこい 空の鳥 野の獣の餌食にしてくれよう」と言ったときの 「向かってこい」というのがヒントで彼の弱点を示しているのです 向かってこい でなきゃ見えないじゃないか - そして「杖々を持って 向かってくるが私は犬なのか」 2本に見えていたのですダビデは杖1本しか持っていないのに

山の頂にいるイスラエル軍は ゴリアテを見下ろして ものすごく強い敵だと思っていました 理解していなかったのは 見かけの強さの元になっていたものが 最大の弱点でもあったという事です

ここには 私たちにとって 重要な教訓があると思います 巨人は見かけほど強くはなく 時に羊飼いの少年は ポケットにすごい武器を秘めているという事です



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