TED日本語 - アラン・ド・ボトン: 親切で、優しい成功哲学

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TED日本語 - アラン・ド・ボトン: 親切で、優しい成功哲学

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親切で、優しい成功哲学
A kinder, gentler philosophy of success
アラン・ド・ボトン
Alain de Botton

内容

アラン・ド・ボトンが成功と失敗の発想を分析します。そしてこの2つの判断の原因となる条件を問題視します。成功や失敗は勝ち得たものなのか?彼は、俗物精神を乗り越え越えて、真実の喜びを仕事で見つけるために、雄弁で、気のきいた論証します。

Script

For me they normally happen, these career crises, often, actually, on a Sunday evening, just as the sun is starting to set, and the gap between my hopes for myself, and the reality of my life, start to diverge so painfully that I normally end up weeping into a pillow. I'm mentioning all this, I'm mentioning all this because I think this is not merely a personal problem. You may think I'm wrong in this, but I think that we live in an age when our lives are regularly punctuated by career crises, by moments when what we thought we knew, about our lives, about our careers, comes into contact with a threatening sort of reality.

It's perhaps easier now than ever before to make a good living. It's perhaps harder than ever before to stay calm, to be free of career anxiety. I want to look now, if I may, at some of the reasons why we might be feeling anxiety about our careers. Why we might be victims of these career crises, as we're weeping softly into our pillows. One of the reasons why we might be suffering is that we are surrounded by snobs.

In a way, I've got some bad news, particularly to anybody who's come to Oxford from abroad. There is a real problem with snobbery. Because sometimes people from outside the U.K. imagine that snobbery is a distinctively U.K. phenomenon fixated on country houses and titles. The bad news is that's not true. Snobbery is a global phenomenon. We are a global organization. This is a global phenomenon. It exists. What is a snob? A snob is anybody who takes a small part of you and uses that to come to a complete vision of who you are. That is snobbery.

The dominant kind of snobbery that exists nowadays is job snobbery. You encounter it within minutes at a party, when you get asked that famous iconic question of the early 21st century, "What do you do?" And according to how you answer that question, people are either incredibly delighted to see you, or look at their watch and make their excuses. (Laughter)

Now, the opposite of a snob is your mother. (Laughter) Not necessarily your mother, or indeed mine, but, as it were, the ideal mother, somebody who doesn't care about your achievements. But unfortunately, most people are not our mothers. Most people make a strict correlation between how much time, and if you like, love -- not romantic love, though that may be something -- but love in general, respect, they are willing to accord us, that will be strictly defined by our position in the social hierarchy.

And that's a lot of the reason why we care so much about our careers and indeed start caring so much about material goods. You know, we're often told that we live in very materialistic times, that we're all greedy people. I don't think we are particularly materialistic. I think we live in a society which has simply pegged certain emotional rewards to the acquisition of material goods. It's not the material goods we want. It's the rewards we want. And that's a new way of looking at luxury goods. The next time you see somebody driving a Ferrari don't think, "This is somebody who is greedy." Think, "This is somebody who is incredibly vulnerable and in need of love." In other words -- (Laughter) feel sympathy, rather than contempt.

There are other reasons -- (Laughter) there are other reasons why it's perhaps harder now to feel calm than ever before. One of these, and it's paradoxical because it's linked to something that's rather nice, is the hope we all have for our careers. Never before have expectations been so high about what human beings can achieve with their lifespan. We're told, from many sources, that anyone can achieve anything. We've done away with the caste system. We are now in a system where anyone can rise to any position they please. And it's a beautiful idea. Along with that is a kind of spirit of equality. We're all basically equal. There are no strictly defined kind of hierarchies.

There is one really big problem with this, and that problem is envy. Envy, it's a real taboo to mention envy, but if there is one dominant emotion in modern society, that is envy. And it's linked to the spirit of equality. Let me explain. I think it would be very unusual for anyone here, or anyone watching, to be envious of the Queen of England. Even though she is much richer than any of you are. And she's got a very large house. The reason why we don't envy her is because she's too weird. She's simply too strange. We can't relate to her. She speaks in a funny way. She comes from an odd place. So we can't relate to her. And when you can't relate to somebody, you don't envy them.

The closer two people are, in age, in background, in the process of identification, the more there is a danger of envy -- which is incidentally why none of you should ever go to a school reunion -- because there is no stronger reference point than people one was at school with. But the problem, generally, of modern society, is that it turns the whole world into a school. Everybody is wearing jeans, everybody is the same. And yet, they're not. So there is a spirit of equality, combined with deep inequalities. Which makes for a very -- can make for a very stressful situation.

It's probably as unlikely that you would nowadays become as rich and famous as Bill Gates, as it was unlikely in the 17th century that you would accede to the ranks of the French aristocracy. But the point is, it doesn't feel that way. It's made to feel, by magazines and other media outlets, that if you've got energy, a few bright ideas about technology, a garage, you too could start a major thing. (Laughter) And the consequences of this problem make themselves felt in bookshops. When you go to a large bookshop and look at the self-help sections, as I sometimes do, if you analyze self-help books that are produced in the world today, there are basically two kinds. The first kind tells you, "You can do it! You can make it! Anything is possible!" And the other kind tells you how to cope with what we politely call "low self-esteem," or impolitely call "feeling very bad about yourself."

There is a real correlationship, a real correlation between a society that tells people that they can do anything and the existence of low self-esteem. So that's another way in which something that is quite positive can have a nasty kickback. There is another reason why we might be feeling more anxious, about our careers, about our status in the world today, than ever before. And it is, again, linked to something nice, and that nice thing is called meritocracy.

Everybody, all politicians on Left and Right, agree that meritocracy is a great thing, and we should all be trying to make our societies really, really meritocratic. In other words, what is a meritocratic society? A meritocratic society is one in which if you've got talent and energy and skill, you will get to the top. Nothing should hold you back. It's a beautiful idea. The problem is if you really believe in a society where those who merit to get to the top, get to the top, you'll also, by implication, and in a far more nasty way, believe in a society where those who deserve to get to the bottom also get to the bottom and stay there. In other words, your position in life comes to seem not accidental, but merited and deserved. And that makes failure seem much more crushing.

You know, in the Middle Ages, in England, when you met a very poor person, that person would be described as an "unfortunate" -- literally, somebody who had not been blessed by fortune, an unfortunate. Nowadays, particularly in the United States, if you meet someone at the bottom of society, they may unkindly be described as a "loser." There is a real difference between an unfortunate and a loser, and that shows 400 years of evolution in society and our belief in who is responsible for our lives. It's no longer the gods, it's us. We're in the driving seat.

That's exhilarating if you're doing well, and very crushing if you're not. It leads, in the worst cases, in the analysis of a sociologist like Emil Durkheim, it leads to increased rates of suicide. There are more suicides in developed individualistic countries than in any other part of the world. And some of the reason for that is that people take what happens to them extremely personally. They own their success. But they also own their failure.

Is there any relief from some of these pressures that I've just been outlining? I think there is. I just want to turn to a few of them. Let's take meritocracy. This idea that everybody deserves to get where they get to, I think it's a crazy idea, completely crazy. I will support any politician of Left and Right, with any halfway decent meritocratic idea. I am a meritocrat in that sense. But I think it's insane to believe that we will ever make a society that is genuinely meritocratic. It's an impossible dream.

The idea that we will make a society where literally everybody is graded, the good at the top, and the bad at the bottom, and it's exactly done as it should be, is impossible. There are simply too many random factors: accidents, accidents of birth, accidents of things dropping on people's heads, illnesses, etc. We will never get to grade them, never get to grade people as they should.

I'm drawn to a lovely quote by St. Augustine in "The City of God," where he says, "It's a sin to judge any man by his post." In modern English that would mean it's a sin to come to any view of who you should talk to dependent on their business card. It's not the post that should count. According to St. Augustine, it's only God who can really put everybody in their place. And he's going to do that on the Day of Judgment with angels and trumpets, and the skies will open. Insane idea, if you're a secularist person, like me. But something very valuable in that idea, nevertheless.

In other words, hold your horses when you're coming to judge people. You don't necessarily know what someone's true value is. That is an unknown part of them. And we shouldn't behave as though it is known. There is another source of solace and comfort for all this. When we think about failing in life, when we think about failure,one of the reasons why we fear failing is not just a loss of income, a loss of status. What we fear is the judgment and ridicule of others. And it exists.

You know, the number one organ of ridicule nowadays, is the newspaper. And if you open the newspaper any day of the week, it's full of people who've messed up their lives. They've slept with the wrong person. They've taken the wrong substance. They've passed the wrong piece of legislation. Whatever it is. And then are fit for ridicule. In other words, they have failed. And they are described as "losers." Now is there any alternative to this? I think the Western tradition shows us one glorious alternative, and that is tragedy.

Tragic art, as it developed in the theaters of ancient Greece, in the fifth century B.C., was essentially an art form devoted to tracing how people fail, and also according them a level of sympathy, which ordinary life would not necessarily accord them. I remember a few years ago, I was thinking about all this, and I went to see "The Sunday Sport," a tabloid newspaper that I don't recommend you to start reading if you're not familiar with it already. I went to talk to them about certain of the great tragedies of Western art. I wanted to see how they would seize the bare bones of certain stories if they came in as a news item at the news desk on a Saturday afternoon.

So I told them about Othello. They had not heard of it but were fascinated by it. (Laughter) And I asked them to write the headline for the story of Othello. They came up with "Love-Crazed Immigrant Kills Senator's Daughter" splashed across the headline. I gave them the plotline of Madame Bovary. Again, a book they were enchanted to discover. And they wrote "Shopaholic Adulteress Swallows Arsenic After Credit Fraud." (Laughter) And then my favorite. They really do have a kind of genius all of their own, these guys. My favorite is Sophocles' Oedipus the King: "Sex With Mum Was Blinding" (Laughter) (Applause)

In a way, if you like, at one end of the spectrum of sympathy, you've got the tabloid newspaper. At the other end of the spectrum you've got tragedy and tragic art, and I suppose I'm arguing that we should learn a little bit about what's happening in tragic art. It would be insane to call Hamlet a loser. He is not a loser, though he has lost. And I think that is the message of tragedy to us, and why it's so very, very important, I think.

The other thing about modern society and why it causes this anxiety is that we have nothing at its center that is non-human. We are the first society to be living in a world where we don't worship anything other than ourselves. We think very highly of ourselves, and so we should. We've put people on the moon. We've done all sorts of extraordinary things. And so we tend to worship ourselves.

Our heroes are human heroes. That's a very new situation. Most other societies have had, right at their center, the worship of something transcendent: a god, a spirit, a natural force, the universe, whatever it is, something else that is being worshiped. We've slightly lost the habit of doing that, which is, I think, why we're particularly drawn to nature. Not for the sake of our health, though it's often presented that way, but because it's an escape from the human anthill. It's an escape from our own competition, and our own dramas. And that's why we enjoy looking at glaciers and oceans, and contemplating the Earth from outside its perimeters, etc. We like to feel in contact with something that is non-human, and that is so deeply important to us.

What I think I've been talking about really is success and failure. And one of the interesting things about success is that we think we know what it means. If I said to you that there is somebody behind the screen who is very very successful, certain ideas would immediately come to mind. You would think that person might have made a lot of money, achieved renown in some field. My own theory of success -- and I'm somebody who is very interested in success. I really want to be successful. I'm always thinking, "How could I be more successful?" But as I get older, I'm also very nuanced about what that word "success" might mean.

Here's an insight that I've had about success. You can't be successful at everything. We hear a lot of talk about work-life balance. Nonsense. You can't have it all. You can't. So any vision of success has to admit what it's losing out on, where the element of loss is. I think any wise life will accept, as I say, that there is going to be an element where we are not succeeding.

Thing about a successful life is, a lot of the time, our ideas of what it would mean to live successfully are not our own. They are sucked in from other people: chiefly, if you're a man, your father, and if you're a woman, your mother. Psychoanalysis has been drumming home this message for about 80 years. No one is quite listening hard enough, but I very much believe that that's true.

And we also suck in messages from everything from the television, to advertising, to marketing, etc. These are hugely powerful forces that define what we want and how we view ourselves. When we're told that banking is a very respectable profession a lot of us want to go into banking. When banking is no longer so respectable, we lose interest in banking. We are highly open to suggestion.

So what I want to argue for is not that we should give up on our ideas of success, but we should make sure that they are our own. We should focus in on our ideas. and make sure that we own them, that we are truly the authors of our own ambitions. Because it's bad enough, not getting what you want, but it's even worse to have an idea of what it is you want and find out at the end of a journey, that it isn't, in fact, what you wanted all along.

So I'm going to end it there. But what I really want to stress is by all means, success, yes. But let's accept the strangeness of some of our ideas. Let's probe away at our notions of success. Let's make sure our ideas of success are truly our own. Thank you very much. (Applause)

Chris Anderson: That was fascinating. How do you reconcile this idea of someone being -- it being bad to think of someone as a loser with the idea, that a lot of people like, of seizing control of your life. And that a society that encourages that perhaps has to have some winners and losers.

Alain de Botton: Yes. I think it's merely the randomness of the winning and losing process that I wanted to stress. Because the emphasis nowadays is so much on the justice of everything, and politicians always talk about justice. Now I am a firm believer in justice, I just think that it is impossible. So we should do everything we can, we should do everything we can to pursue it. But at the end of the day we should always remember that whoever is facing us, whatever has happened in their lives, there will be a strong element of the haphazard. And it's that that I'm trying to leave room for. Because otherwise it can get quite claustrophobic.

CA: I mean, do you believe that you can combine your kind of kinder, gentler philosophy of work with a successful economy? Or do you think that you can't? But it doesn't matter that much that we're putting too much emphasis on that?

AB: The nightmare thought is that frightening people is the best way to get work out of them, and that somehow the crueler the environment the more people will rise to the challenge. You want to think, who would you like as your ideal dad? And your ideal dad is somebody who is tough but gentle. And it's a very hard line to make. We need fathers, as it were, the exemplary father figures in society, avoiding the two extremes, which is the authoritarian, disciplinarian, on the one hand, and on the other, the lax, no rules option.

CA: Alain de Botton.

AB: Thank you very much. (Applause)

私にとって これらのキャリア悲観は 日曜日の夕方に 太陽が沈もうとしている ちょうどその時によく起こります 私が成りたい自分と 現実の 痛いほどのギャップを憂い 涙で枕をぬらします 私がこんなことを話すのは これが 単に私個人の問題ではないと 思うからです 貴方は間違っていると思うかもしれませんが 私達は 経歴の転機によって人生が 区切られる時代に生きています 自分の人生や経歴について 知っていると思った途端に 恐ろしい現実に出くわします

今までに無い程簡単に豊かな生活が出来るのに 落ち着いて キャリアの不安から開放されるのは 前より難しくなりました 経歴に不安を覚える 理由について 考えてみようと思います キャリア悲観の犠牲となって 涙で枕を濡らすのはなぜか 苦悩の理由の一つは 私達が俗物に取り囲まれているからです

さて、外国からオックスフォードに来る人にとって 悪いニュースがあります そこに俗物精神の本当の問題があります 外国からきた人は よく 俗物主義は 田舎の邸宅や称号に固執した イギリス特有の現象だと思いますが それは間違いです 俗物精神は 地球規模の現象です 我々はグローバルな組織で これはグローバルな現象です 俗物とは何でしょう? それはあなたの一部のみを取り上げ あたかも それが貴方の全てであるように見る人です それが俗物精神です

今日支配的な俗物主義は 経歴を鼻にかけることです パーティに行くと 一分以内に 21世紀で最も代表的な質問をされます 「ご職業は?」と その質問にどう答えるかによって 相手は貴方に会えた事を大そう喜ぶか または 時計を見て言い訳をします (笑)

俗物の反対は 母親です (笑) あなたの母親や 私の母親と言うわけではなく 理想的な母親像で、 貴方の業績を気にしない人の事です でも 残念なことに 殆んどの人は 私達の母親ではありません 殆んどの人は "時間"と ロマンチックとは限らない一般的な"愛"や '敬意"の間に厳格な相互関係を築き 相手の社会階級の位置で 慎重に定義された 時間のみを割きます

だから 私達は経歴を気に掛けるのです そして 身の回りの物質に気を配ります 私達は しごく物質的な時代を生きており 貪欲だと言われます 私は そうは思わず 物質を得るという事が ある種の感情的な報酬に結びついた 社会に生きているのだと思います 私達が欲しいのは 物質でなく 報酬なのです これは 贅沢品への新しい見方を提供します もし フェラーリに乗っている人を見かけたら 「貪欲な人だ」などど思わず 「すごく傷つきやすく 愛に飢えた人だ」と思ってください 言い換えると -- (笑) 軽蔑でなく 同情してあげて下さい

他にも理由があります -- (笑) 心を落ち着かせるのが 今までに無い程難しい理由は他にあります 逆説的ですが 一つは 私達の自分のキャリアに対する 期待に関係しています 人類がその生涯で成し遂げられることへの 期待は 今までになく高く 誰でも 何でも出来ると聞かされ カースト制が無くなり 自分が望むだけ昇れる 制度の中にいます これは素晴らしい発想です 私達は基本的に平等だという平等精神: 厳格に定められた 階級もありません

ここに 大きな問題があるのです それは妬みです 嫉妬 羨望を口にするのはタブーですが 現代社会を支配する感情があるとすれば、それは妬みです そして それが平等精神に繋がるのです 説明しましょう ここにいる人 またこれを見ている人で 英国女王を嫉妬する人はいないでしょう 彼女は大変なお金持ちで すごく大きな家に住んでいるのにです 私達が彼女を羨まないのは 彼女が違いすぎるからです 彼女はとても特殊なので 共感を持てません 彼女は変わった話し方をし 変わった場所から来ています 私達は彼女との接点が見出せず 関連が見出せないので 妬みもありません

二人の年齢や 状況 身の回りなど 近ければ近いほど 妬みを招く恐れがあります だから学校の同窓会など行かないことです なぜなら 学校の同級生ほど 確かな基準点は無いからです 現代社会の問題は 全世界を学校に摩り替えてしまうことです 皆がジーンズを穿いて 同じだけど 実は 同じではない 平等精神と 深い不平等が入り混じっています とても ストレスの溜まる状況です

今 貴方が ビル・ゲイツのように お金持ちで有名になることは 17世紀に貴方がフランス上流階級の階級を 継承するのと同じくらい無理なことでしょう 要点は その気になるかどうかです 雑誌やマスコミに煽られると 精力や テクノロジー それに少しの名案があれば ガレージで 大きなことが始められるような気になります (笑) これは まるで私達を本屋にいるような気分にさせます 私は たまに 大きな本屋に行って 自己啓発の部門を見ますが 世界中で発行されている自己啓発の本を分析すると 基本的に2種類に分類されます 最初のは「貴方には出来る!不可能はない!」 そして、他の種類は よく言えば「自尊心の低い人」 悪く言えば「自分を最低と思っている人」への 対処方

「貴方は何でも出来る」と 励ます社会と 自尊心の低さには 相関関係があります これは 何か肯定的なものには ひどい反作用がある例です 私達が 今まで以上に職業や 地位を気にするのは 他にも理由があります これも 肯定的なものと結びついています それは実力社会と呼ばれ

右や左の政治家や だれもが 実力主義は素晴らしく 私達は本当の実力社会を築くべきだと同調します 実力社会とは何でしょう? 実力社会とは 貴方に 才能や 精力 技能があれば 何の障害もなく トップに立てる社会です 素晴らしい発想です 問題は もし 実力のある者が 頂点に立てる社会というものを信じているならば それは 暗に 実力のない人は 下にいて 這い上がれない社会を 信じているということです これは 人生での地位が 偶然ではなく 実力で獲た物 と言え だから 失敗がとても痛烈なのです

中世のイギリスで 貧乏な人は 「不幸な人」と呼ばれました 言葉どおり 運に恵まれなかった人たちです 現代では 特に米国では 社会の底辺にいる人は 「敗者」と呼ばれます 不幸と敗者には大きな違いがありますす これは400年にわたる社会の進化と 人生の責任起因の進化です それはもはや神ではなく 私達自身なのです。

うまく行っているときは爽快ですが そうじゃないと痛烈で エミール・デュルケームなど社会学者の分析によると 最悪 自殺者の率が増えるそうです 先進国の個人主義の国では その他の国に比べて 自殺者が増えています その理由は 人々が出来事の責任を 全て自分のせいだと思うからです 成功の理由は自分にあり 失敗もまた自分にある

これらの重圧から 逃れる方法はあるでしょうか? あると思います 少し紹介しましょう 実力主義を取り上げると 誰もが 行き着くところに行くという発想 これは 馬鹿げた発想です 政治家の右・左関係なく この実力主義の半分でも ましな発想を提案すれば 私は支持します 私は実力主義ですが 純粋な実力社会を築こうなんて 馬鹿げた発想です 不可能な夢です

皆が 正当に評価され 良い者から上 悪いのは下、 という社会を築くなんて 不可能です 無作為の要因があまりにも多いからです 事故 出生事故 頭の上に物が落ちてくるような事故 病気 等 それらに評価はつけられません 人を正当に評価するなど出来ようもありません

アウグスティヌス聖人の「神の国」に面白い引用があります 彼はこう言っています「地位で人を判断するのは罪である」 現代英語で言い換えると 誰と会話をするかをビジネスカードで判断するのは 罪である 地位なんて どうでもいいのです アウグスティヌス聖人によると 誰がどこに納まるかは神のみが知り 神は天使が舞い トランペットが響き 天が開く 審判の日にそれを決める 私のような世俗主義にとっては ばかばかしい発想です それでも大変価値のあるものがその発想にあります

人を判断するのはちょっと待て という事です 誰かの本当の価値なんて 知る必要はありません それは 知らざれる部分なのです だから 私達はそれをまるで知っているように振舞うべきではありません これらを慰める癒しの情報源は他にもあります 人生に失敗したとか 失敗について考える時 私達が恐れるのは 収入面や 地位を無くすからだけではなく 他人の判断や嘲笑を私達は恐れるのです。

さて 最大の嘲笑の機関 現代のそれは 新聞です 週の何曜日だろうと 新聞を開けば 人生を台無しにした人でいっぱいです 悪い人と関係を持った 悪い薬物を取った 悪い法案を通した それが何は関係なく 嘲笑に値する 言い換えれば 彼らは失敗した だから「敗北者」だ さて これに替わる手段はあるのでしょうか? 西洋文明が素晴らしい代替を提供してくれます それは悲劇です

紀元前5世紀 古代ギリシャ劇場で発展した悲劇的芸術は 本質的にどうやって人が失敗するかを 熱心に追求した芸術形式です そして それに伴う同情は 普通の人生には伴いません 数年前に このテーマで 「サンデー・スポーツ」新聞のデスクに会いに行きました --タブロイド(ゴシップ紙)で 読むことは あまりお勧めしませんが -- ある西洋芸術の悲劇について 彼らと話しました 日曜の午後のニュースデスクで 彼らがニュースになる物語の骨組みを どう掴むのか見たかったのです

私はオセロについて語り 彼らは物語は知らなかったけど 大変面白がり (笑) 私はオセロ物語の見出しを書いてくれるよう頼みました 彼らは「愛に狂った移民 上院議員の娘を殺害」 という見出しを書きました 私がボヴァリー婦人のあらすじを渡すと 彼らは恍惚としてそれに読み入り 「買物中毒の姦婦、借金地獄に砒素を飲む」と書きました (笑) 私のお気に入りは --彼らは ある種の天才です-- 私のお気に入りはソフォクレスの「オイディプース王」です 「ママとのセックスに盲目となり」 (笑) (拍手)

同情のスペクトルの一方に タブロイド紙があり そしてもう一方に 悲劇や悲劇芸術があります 私達は悲劇芸術で何が起こっているのか 学ぶべきだと思います ハムレットを敗者と呼ぶのは見当はずれです 彼は敗者ではなく 自分を見失ったのです これは悲劇の私達へのメッセージで 大変重要なことです

現代社会において 不安の原因になっているのは 非人類がその中心に居ないことです 私達は 世界中で初めて 自分達以外は崇拝しない社会に生きています 私達は自分をとても高く評価し その価値があります 人を月に送り 素晴らしいことを沢山やり遂げました だから私達自身を崇拝しがちです

私達のヒーローは人間です これはとても新しい状況で 他の社会では殆んど 中心に 神 精霊 自然の力 宇宙といった 卓越した崇拝の対象がありました 何であろうと 人以外の何かが崇拝対象でした そういう習慣は消えつつあります これが 私達を自然に引き寄せる理由でしょう 健康の為とよく言われますが 違います 人類のアリ塚から抜け出す為です 競争や 劇から 抜け出すためです だから私達は 氷河や大洋を見て喜び、 地球の周辺の外に思いを馳せるのです 非人類とコンタクトを感じるのが私達は好きです それは とても重要なことです

成功と失敗について話をしてきて 興味深いのは 成功について その意味を 私達は 知っていると 思っていることです もし 私が 舞台裏ですごく成功している人のことを話せば 皆さんは すぐにこう思うでしょう その人は その分野では有名人で 沢山の金を稼いでいるに違いない 私の成功における理論は --私は成功にとても興味があり 本当に成功したいと望んでいて いつもこう思っています「どうやったらもっと成功できる?」 でも、年を取るにしたがって 成功の言葉の微妙な意味合い感じるようになりました

成功についての私の洞察はこうです-- 全てに成功することはできない 仕事と人生のバランスなんてナンセンスだ 全て手に入れる事なんて出来ない 成功の展望はどれも 欠けているもの 敗北の要素の存在を認めることにある どんなに賢い人生にも 成功しない要素はある

成功した人生と言うものは 成功した人生を生きると言う私達の発想は ほとんど 私達自身のものではなく 他人に植え付けられたものだ 男性は 主に父親から 女性は 母親から 精神学者はこれを80年に渡って警告をしている 誰もあまり真剣に聞いてませんが これは本当だと思います

私達はまた テレビの宣伝や マーケティング等の すべてのメッセージに影響を受け これらの力は 非常に大きく力強く 私達が何を求め 自分達をどう見るのかを押しつけます 銀行家がとても信頼される職だと言われれば 銀行家になりたい人が増えるでしょう 銀行家の信頼が落ちれば 銀行家への興味も薄れます 私達は とても暗示にかかりやすいのです

私は 成功したいと思うのを あきらめろとは言いませんが それが 自分の為の成功だと確信すべきだと思います 自分自身の発想に焦点を置き それが自分独自のもので 自分が その夢の発案者であることを確認することです 望むものが得られないのも不幸なことですが 自分が望んでいると思ったことが 旅の終わりに来て 本当は違うと気づくのは もっと不幸です

ここで終わりにしますが 本当に強調したいのは 何とし言っても 成功です でも 私達の発想の奇妙さを受け入れましょう 成功の思い込みを探り出し 成功のアイデアが本当に自分自身のものだと確認しましょう ありがとうございました (拍手)

クリス・アンダーソン:とても面白かったよ でも この誰かが 誰かを 敗者と考えるのは悪という着想と 沢山の人が他人の人生を コントロールしたがるという着想にどう折り合いをつけるんだい それに 勝者と敗者を存在を 奨励する社会とは

アラン・ボトン:それは勝ち負けにおける 工程のランダムさです 今日では すべてを正当化をすることに 重点が置かれています 政治家はいつも正当性を訴えます 私は正当性を固く信じていますが これは不可能だと思います 私達は 出来ること全てを 続けられることをすべてやり続けるべきです でも結局のところ 忘れてはならないのは 目の前に誰が居ようと 彼らの人生がどうなろうと そこには強い偶然の要素があります ここから先は議論の余地を残しておきたいと思います でないと閉所恐怖症になりかねませんから

クリス・アンダーソン:でも その親切で 優しい 仕事哲学は経済の成功と 相いれると思いますか? それとも 無理だと? それでも私達がそれに重点を置くのそんなに重要ではない?

アラン・ボトン:人を恐怖に陥れて 高い労働力を得るとすれば それは悪夢です そして また もっと悲惨な環境下で 多くの人がやる気を起こすこともあります 理想的な父親像はどうでしょう? それはタフでやさしい父親像でしょう 難しいですね 私達の社会は 前のように 模範的な父親像が必要です 一方が権威主義で厳格な人 もう一方は ルーズで規則も何もないという 両極端でない父親像が

クリス・アンダーソン:アラン・ド・ボトン

有難うございました (拍手)

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