TED日本語 - ハサン・エラヒ: FBIのみなさん!僕はここだよ!

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TED日本語 - ハサン・エラヒ: FBIのみなさん!僕はここだよ!

TED Talks

FBIのみなさん!僕はここだよ!
FBI, here I am!
ハサン・エラヒ
Hasan Elahi

内容

全くの誤解からFBIに監視されることになったハサン・エラヒ。FBIのエージェントから旅行をする際は逐一報告するように言われます。彼は言われたとおりに報告します...言われた以上に、いやいや、もっともっとそれ以上に。

Script

Hi there. I'm Hasan. I'm an artist. And usually when I tell people I'm an artist, they just look at me and say, "Do you paint?" or "What kind of medium do you work in?" Well most of my work that I work with is really a little bit about methodologies of working rather than actually a specific discipline or a specific technique. So what I'm really interested in is creative problem solving. And I had a little bit of a problem a few years ago. So let me show you a little of that.

So it started over here. And this is the Detroit airport in June 19th of 2002. I was flying back to the U.S. from an exhibition overseas. And as I was coming back, well I was taken by the FBI, met by an FBI agent, and went into a little room and he asked me all sorts of questions -- "Where were you? What were you doing? Who were you talking with? Why were you there? Who pays for your trips?" -- all these little details. And then literally just out of nowhere, the guy asks me, "Where were you September 12th?" And when most of us get asked, "Where were you September 12th?" or any date for that fact, it's like, "I don't exactly remember, but I can look it up for you."

So I pulled out my little PDA, and I said, "Okay, let's look up my appointments for September 12th." I had September 12th -- from 10: 00 a.m. to 10: 30 a.m., I paid my storage bill. From 10: 30 a.m. to 12: 00 p.m., I met with Judith who was one of my graduate students at the time. From 12: 00 p.m. to 3: 00 p.m., I taught my intro class,3: 00 p.m. to 6: 00 p.m., I taught my advanced class. "Where were you the 11th?" "Where were you the 10th?" "Where were you the 29th? the 30th?" "Where were you October 5th?" We read about six months of my calendar. And I don't think he was expecting me to have such detailed records of what I did. But good thing I did, because I don't look good in orange.

(Laughter)

So he asked me -- (Applause) "So this storage unit that you paid the rent on, what did you have in it?" This was in Tampa, Florida, so I was like, "Winter clothes that I have no use for in Florida. Furniture that I can't fit in my ratty apartment. Just assorted garage sale junk, because I'm a pack rat." And he looks at me really confused and says, "No explosives?" (Laughter) I was like, "No, no. I'm pretty certain there were no explosives. And if there were, I would have remembered that one." And he's still a little confused, but I think that anyone who talks to me for more than a couple of minutes realizes I'm not exactly a terrorist threat. And so we're sitting there, and eventually after about an hour, hour and a half of just going back and forth, he says, "Okay, I have enough information here. I'm going to pass this onto the Tampa office. They're the ones who initiated this. They'll follow up with you, and we'll take care of it." I was like, "Great."

So I got home and the phone rings, and a man introduced himself. Basically this is the FBI offices in Tampa where I spent six months of my life -- back and forth, not six months continuously. By the way, you folks know that in the United States, you can't take photographs of federal buildings, but Google can do it for you. So to the folks from Google, thank you. (Applause) So I spent a lot of time in this building. Questions like: "Have you ever witnessed or participated in any act that may be detrimental to the United States or a foreign nation?" And you also have to consider the state of mind you're in when you're doing this. You're basically face-to-face with someone that essentially decides life or death. Or questions such as -- actually, during the polygraph, which was how it finally ended after nine consecutive of them --

one of the polygraph questions was ... well the first one was, "Is your name Hasan?" "Yes." "Are we in Florida?" "Yes." "Is today Tuesday?" "Yes." Because you have to base it on a yes or no. Then, of course, the next question is: "Do you belong to any groups that wish to harm the United States?" I work at a university. (Laughter) So I was like, "Maybe you want to ask some of my colleagues that directly." But they said, "Okay, aside from what we had discussed, do you belong to any groups that wish to harm the United States?" I was like, "No."

So at the end of six months of this and nine consecutive polygraphs, they said, "Hey, everything's fine." I was like, "I know. That's what I've been trying to tell you guys all along. I know everything's fine." So they're looking at me really odd. And it's like, "Guys, I travel a lot." This is with the FBI. And I was like, "All we need is Alaska not to get the last memo, and here we go all over again." And there was a sincere concern there. And he was like, "You know, if you get into trouble, give us a call -- we'll take care of it."

So ever since then, before I would go anywhere, I would call the FBI. I would tell them, "Hey guys, this is where I'm going. This is my flight. Northwest flight seven coming into Seattle on March 12th" or whatever. A couple weeks later, I'd call again, let them know. It wasn't that I had to, but I chose to. Just wanted to say, "Hey guys. Don't want to make it look like I'm making any sudden moves." (Laughter) "I don't want you guys to think that I'm about to flee. Just letting you know. Heads up." And so I just kept doing this over and over and over. And then the phone calls turned into emails, and the emails got longer and longer and longer ... with pictures, with travel tips. Then I'd make websites. And then I built this over here. Let me go back to it over here.

So I actually designed this back in 2003. So this kind of tracks me at any given moment. I wrote some code for my mobile phone. Basically, what I decided is okay guys, you want to watch me, that's cool. But I'll watch myself. It's okay. You don't have to waste your energy or your resources. And I'll help you out. So in the process, I start thinking, well what else might they know about me? Well they probably have all my flight records, so I decided to put all my flight records from birth online. So you can see, Delta 1252 going from Kansas City to Atlanta. And then you see, these are some of the meals that I've been fed on the planes. This was on Delta 719 going from JFK to San Francisco. See that? They won't let me on a plane with that, but they'll give it to me on the plane. (Laughter) These are the airports that I hang out in, because I like airports. That's Kennedy airport, May 19th, Tuesday. This is in Warsaw. Singapore. You can see, they're kind of empty.

These images are shot really anonymously to the point where it could be anyone. But if you can cross-reference this with the other data, then you're basically replaying the roll of the FBI agent and putting it all together. And when you're in a situation where you have to justify every moment of your existence, you're put in the situation where you react in a very different manner. At the time that this was going on, the last thing on my mind was "art project." I was certainly not thinking, hey, I got new work here. But after going through this, after realizing, well what just happened? And after piecing together this, this and this, this way of actually trying to figure out what happened for myself eventually evolved into this, and it actually became this project.

So these are the stores that I shop in -- some of them -- because they need to know. This is me buying some duck flavored paste at the Ranch 99 in Daly City on Sunday, November 15th. At Coreana Supermarket buying my kimchi because I like kimchi. And I bought some crabs too right around there, and some chitlins at the Safeway in Emoryville. And laundry too. Laundry detergent at West Oakland -- East Oakland, sorry. And then my pickled jellyfish at the Hong Kong Supermarket on Route 18 in East Brunswick. Now if you go to my bank records, it'll actually show something from there, so you know that, on May 9th, that I bought $ 14.79 in fuel from Safeway Vallejo.

So not only that I'm giving this information here and there, but now there's a third party, an independent third party, my bank, that's verifying that, yes indeed, I was there at this time. So there's points, and these points are actually being cross-referenced. And there's a verification taking place. Sometimes they're really small purchases. So 34 cents foreign transaction fee. All of these are extracted directly from my bank accounts, and everything pops up right away.

Sometimes there's a lot of information. This is exactly where my old apartment in San Francisco was. And then sometimes you get this. Sometimes you just get this, just an empty hallway in Salt Lake City, January 22nd. And I can tell you exactly who I was with, where I was, because this is what I had to do with the FBI. I had to tell them every little detail of everything. I spend a lot of time on the road. This is a parking lot in Elko, Nevada off of Route 80 at 8: 01 p.m. on August 19th. I spend a lot of time in gas stations too -- empty train stations. So there's multiple databases. And there's thousands and thousands and thousands of images. There's actually 46,000 images right now on my site, and the FBI has seen all of them -- at least I trust they've seen all of them. And then sometimes you don't get much information at all, you just get this empty bed. And sometimes you get a lot of text information and no visual information. So you get something like this. This, by the way, is the location of my favorite sandwich shop in California -- Vietnamese sandwich.

So there's different categorizations of meals eaten outside empty train stations, empty gas stations. These are some of the meals that I've been cooking at home. So how do you know these are meals eaten at home? Well the same plate shows up a whole bunch of times. So again, you have to do some detective work here. So sometimes the databases get so specific. These are all tacos eaten in Mexico City near a train station on July fifth to July sixth. At 11: 39 a.m. was this one. At 1 : 56 p.m. was this one. At 4: 59 p.m. was this one. So I time-stamp my life every few moments. Every few moments I shoot the image.

Now it's all done on my iPhone, and it all goes straight up to my server, and my server does all the backend work and categorizes things and puts everything together. They need to know where I'm doing my business, because they want to know about my business. So on December 4th, I went here. And on Sunday, June 14th at 2009 -- this was actually about two o'clock in the afternoon in Skowhegan, Maine -- this was my apartment there. So what you're basically seeing here is all bits and pieces and all this information.

If you go to my site, there's tons of things. And really, it's not the most user-friendly interface. It's actually quite user-unfriendly. And one of the reasons, also being part of the user-unfriendliness, is that everything is there, but you have to really work through it. So by me putting all this information out there, what I'm basically telling you is I'm telling you everything. But in this barrage of noise that I'm putting out, I actually live an incredibly anonymous and private life. And you know very little about me actually. And really so I've come to the conclusion that the way you protect your privacy, particularly in an era where everything is cataloged and everything is archived and everything is recorded, there's no need to delete information anymore.

So what do you do when everything is out there? Well you have to take control over it. And if I give you this information directly, it's a very different type of identity than if you were to try to go through and try to get bits and pieces. The other thing that's also interesting that's going on here is the fact that intelligence agencies -- and it doesn't matter who they are -- they all operate in an industry where their commodity is information, or restricted access to information. And the reason their information has any value is, well, because no one else has access to it. And by me cutting out the middle man and giving it straight to you, the information that the FBI has has no value, so thus devaluing their currency. And I understand that, on an individual level, it's purely symbolic. But if 300 million people in the U.S. started doing this, we would have to redesign the entire intelligence system from the ground up. Because it just wouldn't work if everybody was sharing everything. And we're getting to that.

When I first started this project, people were looking at me and saying, "Why would you want to tell everybody what you're doing, where you're at? Why are you posting these photos?" This was an age before people were Tweeting everywhere and 750 million people were posting status messages or poking people. So in a way, I'm glad that I'm completely obsolete. I'm still doing this project, but it is obsolete, because you're all doing it. This is something that we all are doing on a daily basis, whether we're aware of it or not. So we're creating our own archives and so on.

And you know, some of my friends have always said, "Hey, you're just paranoid. Why are you doing this? Because no one's really watching. No one's really going to bother you." So one of the things that I do is I actually look through my server logs very carefully. Because it's about surveillance. I'm watching who's watching me. And I came up with these. So these are some of my sample logs. And just little bits and pieces, and you can see some of the things there. And I cleaned up the list a little bit so you can see. So you can see that the Homeland Security likes to come by -- Department of Homeland Security. You can see the National Security Agency likes to come by. I actually moved very close to them. I live right down the street from them now. Central Intelligence Agency. Executive Office of the President. Not really sure why they show up, but they do. I think they kind of like to look at art. And I'm glad that we have patrons of the arts in these fields.

So thank you very much. I appreciate it.

(Applause)

Bruno Giussani: Hasan, just curious. You said, "Now everything automatically goes from my iPhone," but actually you do take the pictures and put on information. So how many hours of the day does that take?

HE: Almost none. It's no different than sending a text. It's no different than checking an email. It's one of those things, we got by just fine before we had to do any of those. So it's just become another day. I mean, when we update a status message, we don't really think about how long that's going to take. So it's really just a matter of my phone clicking a couple of clicks, send, and then it's done. And everything's automated at the other end.

BG: On the day you are in a place where there is no coverage, the FBI gets crazy?

HE: Well it goes to the last point that I was at. So it holds onto the very last point. So if I'm on a 12-hour flight, you'll see the last airport that I departed from.

BG: Hasan, thank you very much. (HE: Thank you.)

(Applause)

僕はハサン アーティストです するとよく聞かれるのが 「画家さんですか?」とか 「どの芸術領域ですか?」とか 僕の作品のほとんどは ある決まった方法や手法ではなく 作品への取り組み方それ自体- ですので 想像力を発揮した問題解決が好きです ちょっと前に ある問題が発生しました それをご紹介します

すべてはここから始まりました デトロイト空港 2002年6月19日 国外の展示会から アメリカに戻ったところで FBIに出迎えられました 小さな部屋に通され あれこれ尋問されました- 「どこで何してんだ?」「誰と話してたんだ?」 「誰が旅費を払ったんだ?」- 細々したことです すると 突然 聞かれました 「9月12日はどこにいたんだ?」 多くの人はこう聞かれれば どんな日だって 「ちょっと調べてみます」となるでしょう

PDAを確認して言いました 「9月12日の予定は...」 10:30 am 倉庫代を払って 10:30 am - 12:00 p.m. ジュディスと会い 12:00 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. 教室でクラス 3:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. 上級クラス 「じゃあ11日は?」「あと10日は?」 「29日は?」「30日は?」 「10月5日は?」 半年分のカレンダーを読み上げました FBIもこんなに詳細な記録があるとは 思ってなかったでしょう 記録があってよかった 金髪頭じゃ

よく見られないですから

そして- (拍手) 「倉庫代を支払ったと- 何が入ってるんだ?」 倉庫はフロリダのタンパにあります 「フロリダには不要な冬服とか 部屋に入りきらない家具 そういったガラクタです よく旅行するもんで」 FBIは困惑した表情で 「爆弾はないのか?」 (笑) 「爆弾なんてありませんよ あったら しっかり覚えてますって」 まだ困惑してるようでした 誰でも僕と数分話せば テロリストじゃないって分かります こうして一時間半程経って 話がいったりきたりした後 ついに 「よろしい この情報をタンパ支局に送る そこが君を担当する」 「分かりました」

家に帰ると 電話が鳴り 現地のFBIからの電話でした こちらがFBIのタンパオフィス 6ヶ月程過ごした場所です- ずっとではなく 出たり入ったりで ところで アメリカでは 政府の建物で写真はNGって知ってました? グーグルでは公開されてます どうもありがとう (拍手) ここで長い時間過ごしました 尋問内容は 「今まで アメリカもしくは諸外国を 害するような行為を目撃ないし参加したことは?」 こういう場合 自分の心の動きも よく考えないと 面と向かって質問され しかも生死を決める問題ですから ウソ発見器 これを 9回も受け続けましたが-

聞かれた内容はと言うと まずは「君はハサンか?」 「はい」 「フロリダ在住か?」 「はい」 「今日は火曜か?」    「はい」 「はい」 か 「いいえ」で答えるわけです お次はもちろん 「アメリカに害をもたらす組織に属していたか?」 大学で教えてます (笑) 「大学の同僚に直接聞いてもらうといいかも」 「それは後にして アメリカに 害をもたらす組織に属していたか?」 「いいえ」

こうして 半年後 9回に及ぶウソ発見器の後 「問題ないようだ」 「そりゃそうでしょ ずっとそう言ってますって」 FBIは困った顔してました 「僕 出張が多いんですよね」 相手はFBIです 「必要なのは行き先であって 手がかりをもとに 延々と尋問することじゃない」 切実な問題なんです 「何か問題が起こったら 連絡をくれ 対応するから」

その後 外出の度 FBIに連絡しました 電話して「これからこの飛行機に乗ります- ノースウェストのシアトル行き 3月12日」とかなんとか 数週間後 また電話して連絡 義務じゃなく そうすることにしました 「FBIのみなさん 怪しいことはありませんよ ほらね」 (笑) 「逃亡する気なんてありませんから こうして連絡してるわけです」 こうして何度も連絡して そのうち電話がメールになり そしてメールはどんどん長くなり 写真もつけて 旅のヒントもおまけに こうしてサイトを立ち上げました 始まりはというと

スタートは2003年 いつでも僕の居場所が分かります 携帯用のプログラムを作りました FBIが僕を監視したいなら むしろ 自分で監視してやるってことです ムダな経費を使わないよう お助けします 他にFBIは何が知りたいだろ? 飛行機の便名は知りたいでしょうから 生まれてからこれまでの便名を公開しました ほら デルタ1252便 カンザスからアトランタ行き こちらは機内食です デルタ719便 JFKからサンフランシスコ行き これを僕に渡しちゃいけません でも 出されちゃうんですよね (笑) こちらは空港の写真です 空港はお気に入りの場所 ケネディ空港 5月19日(火) ワルシャワ空港 シンガポール空港 ガラガラですね

こうした写真は 匿名で撮られました こうしたデータで裏づけがとれるわけです FBIの仕事を代りにやって 情報をまとめられます こういった状況では いつ何時でも 裏づけが必要になり 普段とは違う行動様式になります こうしたことが芸術作品に繋がるなんて 思ってもみませんでした 新しい仕事みっけ なんてね こうした中で一体何が起こったのか? 情報を繋いでいくと... 僕に起こった事が明らかになり 発展を続けて 芸術作品になったわけです

これらは買い物したお店です FBIは必要としてますから こちらはスープの素 ダリーのランチ99にて 11月15日(日)のこと コリアナスーパーでは 好物のキムチをお買い物 その近所でカニも買いました チタリンを少々 エモリービルにて 洗剤を西...失礼 東オークランドで 塩漬けのクラゲ 東ブランズウィックの香港のスーパーで 僕の銀行からも いろいろ情報が出てきます 5月9日 $14.79でガソリンを入れました

ただ情報を垂れ流してるだけでなく こうすると第三者が 独立した第三者 例えば銀行が 照合できるわけです こうして相互に照合します 記録の中には ほんと些細なものもあります 34セント 送金料 僕の銀行口座から直接情報が提供されます タイムリーに出るんです

時には膨大な情報の時も ここはかつての僕のサンフランシスコの住まい こういう情報も ソルトレイクの誰もいないホールとか 1月22日 どこで誰といたかも正確に FBIに報告しなきゃいけません 全てを包み隠さず 車での移動もよくします ネバダ エルコのパーキング ルート80外れの 8月19日 8:01p.m. ガソリンスタンドや誰もいない駅にもよくいきます こうして膨大な写真の データベースが作り上げられました 現在 46,000枚もの写真が格納されてます FBIは全部に目を通してる- まあ そう願いたいもんですが 時にはなんの役にも立たない情報もあります 空っぽのベッドとか 写真無しの単なる文字情報の時もあります 例えばこんな感じ カリフォルニアにあるお気に入りのサンドウィッチのお店の住所 ベトナム風サンドウィッチですよ

外食のデータにもいくつかの カテゴリーがあります 誰もいない駅とガソリンスタンド 家で食事した時のデータもあります さて なぜ家での食事と分かるでしょう? 何度も同じお皿が登場するからです ちょっと推理を働かせなきゃいけません たまにデータが細かすぎることもあります こちらはメキシコシティーで食べたタコス 駅の近所のお店 7月5日から6日までの間 11:39 a.m.はこちら 1:56 p.m.はこちら 4:59 p.m.はこちら 人生の全ての瞬間を記録したわけです 事ある毎に写真を撮る

今では全部iPhoneでやってます 直接サーバーに繋がってます 後はサーバーが全部やってくれます 分類してくれて 整理してくれます FBIは僕がどこで何してるかしらなきゃならない だって何をしてるか知りたいのだから なので 12月4日 こちらにいました 2009年6月14日 日曜日- この時は午後2時でした メイン州のかつての自宅 ご覧いただいたのは 情報のほんの一部分です

サイトにはもっと情報があります ユーザーに優しい情報と言えません むしろ厳しいと言っていいかも ユーザーに厳しい理由の一つは 全てがそこにある ことです それらをなんとか整理しなくちゃならない こうして情報を全部公開することで 僕の全てを公開してることになります 一方で こうした 情報の洪水のおかげで 実際にはかなりプライベートを守っていることになります 僕のことについて何も分からない 僕が得た結論は プライバシーを守るには 特に現代のように情報が整理され 蓄積され そして記録される時代には 情報を規制する必要なんて無いということです

情報が全て公開されているとしたら? うまく整理しなくちゃなりません こうした情報を直接与えることで 小出しに出された情報から 推測される人物像とは異なる像が浮かびます もう一つ興味深いのは 諜報機関- どんな組織でもいいんですが- この業界では情報が 情報 または限定された情報が 商品となっています 彼らの情報に価値があるのは 誰もその情報にアクセスできないからです 僕が仲介をなくして 直接情報を公開することで FBIの情報はその価値を失います 商品価値が落ちるわけです 個人でのこうした活動は パフォーマンスに過ぎません でも もし3億人ものアメリカ人が はじめたとしたら 諜報のシステムを一から 作り直さないとなりません だって みんなが情報を持っていたら 成り立たない業界ですから しかも 今 そうなりつつあります

このプロジェクトを始めた頃 みんなが言いました 「なんで自分の居場所を公開するようなことをするんだい? 写真なんか掲載しちゃって?」 ツイッターが登場する前の話です 7億5千万もの人々が メッセージを掲載して 連絡し合う前 ある意味 これが時代遅れになってよかった プロジェクトは継続中ですが もはや時代遅れ だってみんながやってるんですから みんなが日常やってることです 気づいてか気づかずか 各々が自分のアーカイブを築きあげています

友達が言ってました 「なあ おかしいんじゃないか? こんなことして 誰も見ていないさ それに 誰も気にしちゃいないし」 サーバーのアクセスログを 注意深くみていくと- だって監視なんだから 誰が僕を監視してるか 監視しないと これができました こちらはログのサンプルです いくつかご覧いただきましょう 見やすいように少し整理しました 国土安全保障の方々も- 国土安全保障省 国家安全保障局の面々も 実は近所に住んでるんです 通りを挟んだ直ぐ側に CIA 大統領府 なんでアクセスしたんですかね アートが好きなのかも? こういう業界にパトロンができそうで良かった!

どうもありがとう

(拍手)

ハサン 聞きたいんだが iPhoneから自動で全てのデータを送られるというけど 写真を撮ったり 情報を書き込んだりしてるわけだろ 一日あたりどのくらい時間がかかるもんだい?

ほとんどゼロ メールを 送ったり 読んだりするのと変わらないよ もう慣れちゃったからね 生活の一部といった感じです まあ情報をアップデートする時 所要時間なんて考えません だって ちょっと電話でトントンってタップして 送って ハイ終わり あとは全部向こうでやってくれるんだ

飛行中は連絡とれないだろ?FBIは焦らないかな?

まあ 最後に居たところは分かるから 少なくてもどこから居なくなったかは分かる なので12時間のフライトなら 出発地点の空港が分かるってわけです

ハサン どうもありがとう

(拍手)

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